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No. 40 April 1, 1 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 






\ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Russian Hunting. 1 

Report of Inaugural Meeting of Midwest Pheasant Council, 
Medelia, Minnesota, January 14-15* 195$. 

- by j. K. Reynolds 13 

Pheasant Harvest - 1957, Lake Huron District. 

- by R. E. Mason 20 

James Bay Report, 1957. - by G. F. Boyer 29 

Midwinter Inventory For Ontario, 195$. - by G. F. Boyer 40 

Summary of Waterfowl Conditions In The Mississippi 

Flyway, Winter of 1957-5$. - by A. S. Hawkins 42 

Additional Notes on the Birds, Mammals and Fishes of 

Extreme North-western Ontario. - by J. A. Macfie 44 

Sex Ratios of the Western Region Deer Herd. 

- by R. Boultbee 50 

Survival Rates, Apparent and Actual of the Western 

Region Deer Herd. - by R. Boultbee 53 

Live Trapping of Fisher in Algonquin Park, Winter of 

1957. - by M. G. Loucks 61 



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Page 

A Creel Census of the Black Sturgeon Area, 1957. 

- by C. A. Rettie 67 

Winter Fishing Pressure On Lake Trout, Port Arthur 

District, 1957. - by R. A. Ryder 72 

Coarse Fish Removal, Heart Lake, 1957. 

- by Murray G. Johnson 74 



( THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

RUSSIAN HUNTING 
Introduction by Dr. C. H. D. Clarke 



For some time we have received the Czech game management 
magazine "Myslivost ." Written in Czech, its contents remain 
inaccessible to us. The best that can be done was to look over the 
titles and record a few interesting items against the time when 
someone carrying on a related investigation might be sufficiently 
concerned to want a translation. In the November, 1957 issue, 
however, were a series of articles, intended to inform Czech hunters 
on hunting and wildlife in the Soviet Union, which we could see were 
too good to pass up. After all, the Soviet territories are known 
to be rich in game beyond anything found elsewhere, and, not 
unnaturally, the Russian has always been the world f s most devoted 
and incorrigible hunter. The very word "hunt" in Russian means 
something done willingly, and "hunter" corresponds to "volunteer" in 
English. A regime that tried to keep Russians from hunting would 
not last overnight. Obviously, under the Soviet regime, they hunted, 
but who, where, when and how, and what about management? Foreigners 
who have visited the country were either not interested, or not 
allowed to leave the city streets. 

We sent these articles to the Canadian Wildlife Service, 
who in turn sent them to the central translating bureau in Ottawa, 
who have sent us back all of two articles and most of a third. It 
is no better than a peek through a couple of knotholes, but still 
most interesting. 



Mvslivost ( Hunting and Gamekeeping ) . Volume 5 (35) » Number 11, 
November 1957, pages 163-164, (Czech). 

"Forty Years of Soviet Hunting and Gamekeeping Economy", by F. Ramkov, 
Director of the "Hunting and Gamekeeping" Pavilion at the All-Union 
Agricultural Exhibition in Moscow. 

Parts "About 'Sports 9 Hunting and Gamekeeping." 

Great work has been done in the field of sports hunting 
and gamekeeping under the Soviet Government. After the decision of 
the All-Union Central Executive Committee and the Council of the 
People's Commissars of the R.S.F.S.R. (Russian Soviet Federative 
Socialist Republic) of February 10th, 1930, a part of the hunting 
grounds was given for the use of hunting organizations. On the 
basis of this decision and of the decrees of the Union Republics, 
numerous hunting and gamekeeping organizations were created in the 
U.S.S.R. Up to the year 1940, there were established in all 
territories, regions and republics, voluntary hunting associations, 
and in districts, the collectives of hunters. Today, the hunting 
associations have over 1.5 million members. 



- 2 - 

Hunting and gamekeeping organizations pay a great deal of 
attention to the protection of the game and to the enrichment of 
the hunting grounds. Thus, for example, last year, the Moscow 
organization released into the hunting grounds below Moscow over 
3,000 ducks and 2,000 partridges. Last year, members of the hunting 
and gamekeeping organizations exterminated over 28 thousand wolves 
and delivered to the state furs in the value of 14 million roubles. 

A significant place in the activity of the hunting and 
gamekeeping organizations is taken up by the manufacture of hunting 
and trapping equipment, inventory, and marketing. In the years 
1955 and 1956, 464 sales outlets of the hunting and gamekeeping 
organizations sold various game and fish in the value of more than 
one billion and five hundred and eighty thousand roubles. In 1956, 
83 manufacturing workshops produced hunting and gamekeeping equipment 
made of local raw materials, in the value of 27.1 million roubles. 
Hunting and gamekeeping farms and branches of all hunting and 
gamekeeping organizations became bases for the development of the 
sport of hunting and gamekeeping. Today, there are, in the Soviet 
Union, over 330 hunting and gamekeeping farms. 

Their activity can be characterized by the example of the 
Volchikhin hunting and gamekeeping farm of the hunting and game- 
keeping collective at the Novotrub plant of the Sverdlovsk territory. 
This farm was established in 1945? and is destined for the use of 
the collective of hunters, of whom there were 56I on January 1st of 
this year. Of this number there were? 347 labourers, 129 engineers 
and technical workers, and 85 clerks. The farm covers 72 square 
kilometers in area, which is covered by coniferous, leafy, and 
various other trees, and about 30 per cent of the area is covered by 
water. This territory is inhabited by all types of game and fowl 
which are typical of the Middle Urals, such as moose, roe-deer, 
squirrel, fox, sable, kolinsky (?), white hare, capercaillie and 
hazel grouse. Crane, snipe, jack snipe, plover, ducks, geese, bald 
coot, and other fowl nest here in the spring and summer. Besides 
this, there are water reservoirs rich with fish. 

In order that the arriving hunters have every comfort, the 
farm has, on its grounds, two large houses and five huts. About 
one hundred hunters can be accommodated there at any one time. Two 
houses, of two stories each, are permanently occupied by the game- 
keepers who also raise various small domestic animals. 

Besides the living areas, there is, on the floors, a 
locker-room for the personal possessions of the hunters, and further 
a cellar, ice-house, gunpowder magazine, two hundred boats and a 
variety of other equipment. All-around care is given to the game 
in the hunting grounds. Their nests are protected, harmful condi- 
tions are eliminated or, at least, lessened to a more acceptable 
measure, the game is provided with food, their watering places are 
cleaned, and remises and everything else which is involved in proper 
gamekeeping are established. 

Hunting is allowed on the territory of the farm only with 
a special permit, which states the hunter 9 s name, and also the 
sector in which he is allowed to stay, the length of his stay for 
hunting purposes and the quantity and the kind of game he is allowed 
t o hunt • 



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- 3 - 

All these measures bring about positive results and the 
number of hunters who visit the hunting grounds increases from year 
to year£ last year, 4>017 members of the organization visited there. 
The best proof that hunters there are doing so well is evidenced 
by the fact that, in the last few years, furs in the value of 5*000 
to 6,000 roubles were purchased from them. Last year, the members 
killed or trapped 1,883 animals. 

The hunting and gamekeeping farm became, for the members 
of the hunting and gamekeeping organization, one of the most 
desirable places of rest, and many of them spend their holidays 
there, together with their families. 

Not everything could be compiled in this article to enable 
the Czechoslovak reader to form a complete picture of the Soviet 
hunting and gamekeeping. It is outside the realm of a magazine 
article. However, I hope that I have succeeded in showing that, in 
forty years, in other words, since the October Socialist Revolution, 
the hunting and gamekeeping economy in the U.S.S.R. grew and flouri- 
shed with every year, and also that all the conditions for its 
future development were created. 



Myslivost (Hunting and Gamekeeping), Volume 5 (35)? Number 11, 
November 1957, pages 164-166, (Czech). 

"The Significance of the Forty Years for the Enrichment of the Game 
and Industrial Fauna in the U.S.S.R.", by Professor N. Lavrov. 

In the Soviet Union, nature is enlivened on a large scale 
with various animals, beginning with the tiny insects and ending 
with the buffalo, a giant weighing over a ton. But for the most part, 
those animals which are important for hunting and gamekeeping are 
acclimatized. It is only natural, for besides the cultural value, 
these animals have, for their venison and, primarily, their fur, an 
economic value as well. 

After the Great October Socialist Revolution, even during 
the years of the Civil War, various measures were undertaken for 
the protection of disappearing fauna and for the economic exploitation 
of the hunting and gamekeeping economy. For the first time in the 
history of the Soviet land, planned hunting or trapping of fur- 
bearing game was introduced. Hunting seasons were established with 
special regard for the geographical conditions and for the economy 
of individual territories. At the same time, hunting or trapping of 
certain game was forbidden and organization of a chain of game parks 
and government reservations was begun. 

All these renovating and organizational measures were of 
great significance in the improvement of the hunting and gamekeeping 
economy of Russia. However, with these measures alone could be 
assured neither the needs of national economy, primarily as far as 
furs were concerned, nor could the public demand be satisfied. 



- 4 - 

Therefore, the organization of big state and collective farms for 
gamekeeping was begun, hunting of game of the so-called "second 
degree", such as moles, hamsters, water voles, and susliks, was 
introduced, and the year 1925 brought the beginning of the acclima- 
tization of commercial game and, afterwards of fowl. 

In the first four years, only 513 animals and those of only 
three species were set free c However, the acclimatization work was 
spreading quickly. In the year 1939? already over 13,000 animals 
of eleven species were set free. During the Patriotic War (World 
War II) only muskrat, and in small quantity at that, was set free. 
Nevertheless, in the post-war years, the renovating measures were 
greatly increased. Thus, for example, in 1953 * over 21,000 animals 
were set free. 

In forty years, over 241,000 animals of thirty-six species 
were released? 4*760 musk-shrews and moles; 9,270 foxes (among them, 
silver and polar foxes), martens, Tartar foxes (corsacs); 23,200 
sables, stone martens, pole-cats, American minks, Siberian weasels, 
Eversmann weasel, and sea otters; 670 raccoon dogs; 13,700 marmots, 
susliks (ground squirrels), squirrels; 170,000 muskrats; 3*270 
European and Canadian beavers; 3*600 nutrias (coypus), and 11,360 
common hares, white hares and wild rabbits. From the ungulata 1,300 
animals, and besides that, over 5*000 forest fowl were set free. 

All acclimatization measures, of course, did not meet with 
equal success and did not have equal economic effect. Thus, for 
example } the acclimatization of the polecat, stone marten, wild 
rabbit, grey squirrel and silver fox failed completely. 

The most successful acclimatization of all was that of the 
muskrat, particularly in the results of the year 194$ « But even 
the earlier ones were successful. In the last thirty years, muskrat 
was established in more than five hundred administrative districts 
of 150 territories, regions and republics. This little animal became 
successfully acclimatized everywhere. It lives even above the north 
polar circle, where, on the water reservoirs, there is ice for nine 
months every year, but it is doing just as well there as in the 
deserts of Central Asia and on the lakes of the high mountains of 
Kirghiz. 

The hunting of muskrat in the U.S.S.Ro was begun in 1935* 
and today, more of them are killed there than in Canada. The extent 
of its range is greater than its natural distribution in the U.S.A. 
Today 9 s share of the muskrat represents 12 per cent of the total sum 
of fur supplies in the U.S.S.R. 

Good acclimatization results were achieved also with the 
American mink. Since 1935* there are about 10,500 of these animals 
in twenty-nine territories, regions and republics. Particular 
attention was paid to the propagation of this animal in Siberia and 
in the Far East. The attempts to introduce raccoon into some hunting 
grounds also deserve attention. Only a few of these little animals 
had been brought to the Soviet Union, some of them having even been 
bred in captivity, which is certainly not conducive to their propaga- 
tion in nature. At first, raccoons were released in the Kirghiz and 



- 5 - 

Azerbaijan S.S.R. in Azerbaijan, the trapping of live raccoons was 
begun after eight years, and afterwards, these animals were deposited 
in other territories. In 1955, the fur trapping of the raccoon com- 
menced. In the last few years, raccoon was released in fifteen 
centres of North Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Byelorussia and in the 
Pomerania. 

Finally, the interesting experiments with the acclimatiza- 
tion of the nutria (coypu) should be mentioned. This little tropical 
animal was brought to the U.S.SoR. from South America in 1930. Its 
first release in the Krasnodar region and elsewhere ended in 
failures the nutria (coypu) was unable to adapt itself to the new 
conditions, which were vastly different from those to which it was 
accustomed in its land of origin. The nutria (coypu) took a good 
hold in Trans-Caucasus, where its trapping commenced after two or 
three years. However, even there, it finally succumbed to the cruel 
nature, particularly to the cold and lack of food. 

It took many years of stubborn work before the hereditary 
characteristics of the nutria (coypu) were overcome and before the 
right method for its breeding was discovered. Today, it is accomp- 
lished by putting the breeding stock of the nutria (coypu) into 
large cages for the winter season, thus preventing their mass 
extermination. Nutria (coypu) living in the U.S.S.R. have, with time, 
adapted themselves to their new domicile, and differ from their South 
American sisters primarily in their greater resistance to winter. 
This example is typical? Small American animals released in 1932, 
in the Kuban Plain, perished during the first and relatively warm 
winter, while the acclimatized nutria (coypu) released in the same 
areas seventeen years later, survived several unusually severe 
winters, and multiplied. 

Good results were achieved also in the game-stocking of 
various territories with native game, in other words, the animals 
which have inhabited the territory of the U .S.S.R. for a long time. 
Particular attention is paid to the planting of the beaver. Before 
the Great October Socialist Revolution, this valuable species of 
animal became almost entirely extinct. A few were saved in the 
Ukraine, Byelorussia, and in the Voronezh, Tumen and Tuvin territo- 
ries, altogether hardly 1,000 beavers. Effective measures were 
needed, in order to save the beaver. An order, banning the hunting 
of the beaver was issued" a chain of reservation was built and 
afterwards, the depositing work was begun. Since 1930, over 3»200 
beavers were released into the hunting grounds of many territories, 
regions and republics. They took hold in almost all areas and are 
multiplying successfully. Today, the eastern border of the expansion 
of this animal runs through the Irkutsk territory in Siberia. 
Altogether, the beaver population in the U.S.S.R. today is several 
tens of thousands. Also, there is no further talk of saving the 
beaver - as a naturalist ? s keepsake - but rather, about what is to 
be done in order that the beaver may be included, as quickly as 
possible, on the roster of the commercial furbearing game. 

The beaver, it seems, is an important fur-bearing animal 
of the near future. Because of its value and biological peculiari- 
ties, and because of the great quantity of natural water reservoirs 
in the European and Asiatic part of the U.S.S.R., the beaver is 
given priority over many other types of game in the work on the 
enrichment of commercial fauna. 



- 6 - 

The sable situation before the Great October Socialist 
Revolution was equally poor. Owing to the predatory extermination 
of the species, the number of these valuable little animals decreased 
catastrophically in pre-revolutionary Russia; the earlier territory 
of its distribution disintegrated into many sections, separated from 
one another by thousands of kilometers. 

For the restoration of sable and for the expansion of their 
range, a complete system of measures, not excluding the depositing 
of these animals, was instituted under the Soviet government. 
Since 1927? some 12,500 of these little animals were released into 
the hunting grounds of more than one hundred districts of eighteen 
territories, regions and autonomous republics. The task was not 
only to fill up the "slowly becoming deserted" preserves, and to 
expand the quantities of this species, but also to improve the 
quality of the entire species. Therefore, sable possessing the most 
valuable characteristics were released first. The most extensive 
swing in the expansion of the preserves with the sable was registered 
in the post-war years, and particular attention was paid to the Far 
East, Yakutsk A.S.S.R., and the Irkutsk territory,, The sable is 
deposited today far behind the borders of its present zoological 
domain as well; in the Sverdlovsk and Magadan territories and in 
Yakutsk. The result of all these measures is the fact that, in the 
past few years, more sable skins are being processed in the U.S.S.R. 
than in the same territory one hundred years ago. 

The domain of such animals as raccoon dog and common hare 
was also considerably expanded. The territory of distribution of 
the raccoon dog in the area of the U.S.S.R. was, until recently, 
bounded by the southern border of the Far Eastern Territory. The 
first attempts with the acclimatization were undertaken in 1929* 
Since then, about 9>000 raccoon dogs were deposited into seventy-six 
territories, regions and republics, primarily in the European part 
of the U.S.S.R. 

The raccoon dog has shown resistance and ability for 
comparatively fast acclimatization in new conditions. By depositing 
and natural process, the territory of its distribution was enlarged 
many times over in a short time. Today, we find this little animal 
in many localities of the European territory of the U.S.S.R., in the 
Caucasus, and many territories of Central Asia. In places, the 
raccoon dog even crossed the state boundaries and settled down in 
some of the neighbouring countries, such as Finland, Poland and 
Roumania. 

From the standpoint of the fur processors, good results 
were achieved with the acclimatization of the Usuriisk raccoon dog 
in the northwestern territories of the European part of the Soviet 
Union. There, the "raccoon" became one of the principal fur-bearing 
animals. In the last few years, in the districts where the "raccoon" 
settled, four times as many skins are processed than in the terri- 
tories which it inhabited previously. 

The acclimatization of the common hare began in 1936, but 
on a comparatively small scale. In three years, approximately 1,300 
hares were released in Siberia. They took hold everywhere, although 



- 7 - 

in places, the rate of their expansion was slowed down because of 
unsatisfactory protection, various illnesses and diseases which 
plagued local fauna, and also because of severe winters with great 
quantities of snow and because of the excessive numbers of foxes and 
wolves. 

The release of the hare was continued in 1951. In the past 
few years, over five hundred of them were released in western and 
eastern Siberia, In the last twenty years, the hare settled down 
in twenty districts of ten territories, regions and autonomous 
republics. The Irkutsk territory serves as the best example to 
indicate their rate of multiplication. There, the hare was released 
in one administrative district, and today it is found in ten dist- 
ricts. 

The ungulata were deposited only on a very small scale, 
and these were mostly experiments. 

First of all, a word about the buffalo which, during the 
Patriotic War (World War II), was almost wiped out in its entirety. 
None the less, the attempts to save the buffalo were successful in 
spite of this and, after a few years, even the attempts to increase 
its numbers were successful. It is acclimatized in the Belovezh 
primaeval forest, and in the Caucasian, Khoper and Prioksk-Terasov 
reservations. 

The next member of this group, the red deer, which was 
preserved in reduced numbers only in the Pomeranian region, success- 
fully took hold in seven reservations of the European part of the 
Soviet Union, in the Kalinin, Yaroslavl and Moscow territories, in 
the Stauropolsk region and in the Azerbaijan, Armenian, Lithuanian 
and Latvian republics. 

In addition to this, tests on the acclimatization of the 
European moose were made in the Kharkov territory and tests on the 
acclimatization of the Siberian and Caucasian stag were made in the 
Moscow, Kalinin and Yaroslavl territories, and in the Bashkir and 
Mordovian A.S.S.R. The hybrid deer from the Askaniya mountain was 
taken to Moldavia and to the Khersonsk territory. The roe-deer 
became new inhabitants in the Ukrainian and Latvian republics, in 
the Urmut and Mordovian A.S.S.R., in the Yaroslavl, Vladmir and 
Moscow territories, and the deer-kind animals in the Kiev territory 
and in the Moldavian S«S.R. Saigas (Antelopes of the steppes) and 
dzeren gazelles (Mongolian antelopes) were released on the Island 
of Borsa-Kelmes in the Aral Sea, and wild boars in the Moscow, 
Riazan, Kalinin, Vladimir and Minsk territories. 

Game birds were deposited mainly for the "sporting" 
reasons, in other words, for the pleasure hunters. The greatest 
attention was paid to the partridge. It was released, together 
with the vousatou partridge in the Moscow, Yaroslavl, Vladimir and 
Kiev territories. The red partridge was released in the first three 
above mentioned territories; pheasants in Moldavia, Estonia and in 
the Ukraine, and further in the Kalinin and Moldavian territories. 
In addition, acclimatization experiments were made with the bald 
coot, gray goose, capercaillie, black grouse and hazel grouse. 



- 8 - 

It is absolutely impossible to describe in this article 
all that has been done for the enrichment of the game and the 
industrial fauna during the forty years of the existence of the 
Soviet government. All these tasks are the result of a close co- 
operation between science and practical experience. Although this 
work was commenced only a very short time ago, it has already proven 
its great economic importance. The game industry gives the country 
every year many million roubles worth of the "soft gold", as the fur 
of the acclimatized fur-bearing fauna is known. 

However, in spite of all this, neither the demand for fur 
and for game, nor the requirements of the vast army of sports 
hunters have as yet been satisfied. Even more emphatically evident 
is the task of the hunting and gamekeeping economy to increase the 
supply of raw material. To some extent, this problem can be solved 
by acclimatization, which is one of the principal methods of 
increasing the usefullness of the hunting grounds. 

In the Soviet land, where natural conditions are so varied 
there are also immense supplies of vegetable and animal organisms, 
which are not utilized at all and, if they are, then only partially. 
Many of them can constitute a splendid fodder basis for new species 
of game and industrial fauna, and can be utilized for the production 
of very valuable furs and fauna. In other words, in the U.S.S.R., 
there exist excellent conditions for further successful depositing 
of native fauna into more and more territories and for the acclima- 
tization of fauna from other places. 

From the magazine Okhota i okhotnichiye khozyaistvo 
( Hunting and Hunting Economy ). 



Myslivost ( Hunting and Gamekeeping ), Volume 5 (3 5)? Number 11, 
November 1957, pages 166-167, (Czech) . 

"A Short Visit Into Soviet Hunting Grounds" 

This will really be only a short visit into the Soviet 
hunting grounds, and only into some of them, because we could hardly 
find all the necessary time if we wished to visit each and every 
one of them. However, even this brisk walk through some regions 
will enable us to learn many a thing about the magnitude of the 
Soviet Union which, to the north, reaches behind the polar circle 
and to the south, touches the Himalayas. 

The Karelian Hunting Grounds . 

The taiga of the Karelian hunting grounds stretches north 
from Petrozavodsk and also includes the plains of the Kola peninsula, 
The country is covered with coniferous forests and almost a third 
of its territory is covered by lakes and rivers. 

There is a great deal of game in this region, and in 
places it consists primarily of the capercaillie, ptarmigan, hazel 
grouse and black grouse. 



- 9 - 

Capercaillie and black grouse begin to mate at the begin- 
ning of May, during the "white" nights. Hunting of capercaillie 
during this period is very successful, and a good hunter can bag 
from six to eight birds in one morning. The mating of black grouse 
is of shorter duration, and usually takes place on the frozen marshes 
and lakes where it is difficult to build a watch. There are no 
aquatic birds here because the lakes are rocky and, consequently, 
animals on shore do not find sufficient food. Hare and fox seldom 
appear in this area. Hunting is done with the aid of a "laika" 
(Eskimo dog), usually in the hunting grounds near the road. Hunting 
off the road is very difficult and in winter, it is quite impossible. 

In the littoral hunting grounds, there is a zone of medium 
sized islands, scattered along the coastal bays and gulfs of the 
White Sea. These islands are rocky, and larger ones are covered with 
coniferous forests. Winter here is very severe, with heavy snow 
storms and blizzards. 

As soon as the rivers thaw and the White Sea gulfs are 
free of ice, large quantities of aquatic birds fly in. Almost all 
species of northern ducks appear here, as do the giant goose and a 
large quantity of brant "berneshkas" as they are called. The "bern- 
eshkas" fly in at the end of May and at the beginning of June in 
coveys of several thousands, and settle down on small islands. The 
hunters wait for them 5 to 5 kilometers from the coast. There are 
usually snow storms at this time of the year, and often it is 
impossible to think of returning home for several days; therefore, 
the hunters bring along enough food supplies for a week. During the 
high-tide, the "berneshka" remains at sea, and at low-tide flies onto 
shoals in search of food, returning afterwards to the open sea. The 
hunters usually take full advantage of these flights. 

Hunting Grounds in the Urals 

The territory of the river Belaya is one of the routes of 
the migratory aquatic birds. Its northeast section is richly covered 
with forests. These forests, composed of a variety of trees, are 
easily accessible and only the area of the lower stream is thickly 
overgrown with black nightshade and wild rose. There are many lakes 
here, some of which are covered with thick overgrowth. About one 
hundred kilometers east of the confluence of the rivers Belaya and 
Kama, the forest ends, and the fields and meadows begin; these, too, 
are dotted with many lakes and marshes. 

When the river Belaya thaws, many aquatic birds appear in 
its basin; some remain there, others fly north. In the forests, 
there are numerous capercaillie, black grouse and hazel grouse and 
also hare and small fur-bearing animals. 

The most successful and most interesting hunting on the 
river Belaya is that of ducks on "day-time rest". As soon as the 
ducklings are partially grown and begin to fly, they congregate in 
flocks of several hundreds. In day-time, they rest on one of the 
lakes and at dusk, they fly to pasture in corn and buckwheat fields 
which are sometimes scores of kilometers removed; they return again 
in the morning. During their morning return, they fly high and 
descend for their "day-time rest". The hunter determines the lake 



-lO- 
on which the ducks rest, and there he builds a watch, either on 
shore or in a boat hidden in the reeds. The watch is usually of a 
horseshoe shape, and is roofless. The hunter waits until the flock 
settles on the water and then he fires, first at the sitting ducks, 
and afterwards, at rising ducks. If he is a good shot, he fires at 
descending ducks as well. 

Northern Kazakhstan . 

In the north, spreads a steppe with small forest oases. 
In the springtime, the steppe is overgrown with sappy vegetation 
which, however, changes completely in the summer as the burning sun- 
rays scorch everything. South of the village of Smirnova the region 
of lakes begins, which lakes, though not too deep, are thickly over- 
grown with reeds. During the rainy season these lakes are covered 
with aquatic birds. This is a region rich in game. On the lakes 
there are many ducks, geese and swans, and in the steppe and in the 
forests there are numerous black grouse, snezny partridge, partridge, 
and quail. In the winter there are, in the steppe and forests, 
many hares, foxes and wolves. 

Owing to the fact that the steppe is bare, it is difficult 
to get within range of the black grouse and partridge which pasture 
on the steppe. 

The Azerbaijan Steppe 

On the western shore of the Caspian Sea spreads the steppe 
region of the Trans-Caucasus, the eastern part of which is covered 
with marshes, and the western part of which is steppe. In the 
spring, the steppe is green, but later the sun scorches it, as was 
the case with the previously discussed hunting ground. In November, 
the winter rainy season commences and lasts until March; it seldom 
snows and even then, snow melts quickly. 

Almost all aquatic and steppe fowl nesting in northern and 
central zones of the Soviet Union, spend the winter in the Trans 
Caucasus. Vast coveys of bustards and sand grouse (birds related to 
pigeons), are concentrated in this area, and on the larger lakes, 
Akh-chala and Kakhmud-chala, are concentrated great quantities of ^ 
aquatic birds. In addition, in the marshes live wild boars and wild 
fencats and, on the steppe live jackals, foxes, wolves, hares and 
porcupines. 

The hunting of aquatic fowl in the Azerbaijan steppe dif- 
fers from that in other territories of the Soviet Union in that it 
is usually successful only during a wind and rain storm. The 
difference rests also in the fact that, during a wind storm, ducks 
fly all day and not only in one definite direction, but all over. 
They are often joined in their wild flight by geese. Bagged ducks 
have to be fetched immediately, otherwise they are swiped by the 
jackal. 

Duck-shoots take place also at night. The hunter chooses 
a moonlit night when the skies are covered with clouds. On the 
light background of the clouds, ducks are clearly visible and they 
are not too cautious and fly low. Hunting is very successful when 
the ground is covered with snow. The hunter wraps himself in a 



- 11 - 

white sheet in order to blend with his surroundings ; the duck 
cannot see him and flies directly into him„ 

The Talysks Ridge 

This hunting ground is situated in the Azerbaijan Republic 
some 2 5 to 30 kilometers northwest of the city of Lenkorani. The 
promontory is covered with forest and is extremely rocky. Winter 
in the promontory is often rainy and blizzards rage only in the 
mountains. The slopes of the Talysks Ridge are overgrown with sub- 
tropical forest, interwoven with climbing plants. Here, the hunter 
meets the harmless porcupine and the dangerous tiger. The pheasant 
lives in the thicket and is joined, during the autumn by the woodcock, 
The most rewarding shoot is in the winter when, in addition to the 
above mentioned "domestic or native" birds, the migratory game fowl 
make their home here. One of the most interesting hunting methods 
is that of luring the wild animals with bait. In a suitable place 
on the circuit, the hunter digs a hole for his watch. If he is in 
a marshy terrain, he sinks a barrel into the ground and crouches in 
it. To set the bait, the guts of a wild boar, for example, about 
two hours before the wait he drags it all over the ground, but not 
closer than 15 or 20 steps of his watch. The hunter usually rides 
a horse so that human scent cannot be detected by the animal.* A 
fox, wolf or jackal creeps up to the bait. It is quite obvious 
that for such a wait, a moonlit night is the most suitable one, and 
a strong wind is equally necessary. 

Different Region - Different Custom 

With the differences among various Soviet regions corres- 
ponds also the difference among the animals and also the method of 
hunting. This is only natural, since the hunting and gamekeeping 
season is influenced by the climate and the weather conditions on 
one hand, and by the hunting customs on the other. Let us have a 
closer look then at the fowling of the black grouse in the U.S.S.R, 

The hunting and gamekeeping season differs according to 
the location of the hunting grounds, as we have already mentioned. 
In some places the hunting commences as early as August. During 
this period the black grouse is found mostly in the glades, meadows 
or in the young forests with thick and tall grass, usually adjoining 
a dense forest. Towards the end of August they begin to pass to 
the edges of the forest, towards the spring fields or towards the 
moss-grown morasses where they feed on the whortleberries (red 
bilberries) and on the cranberries. 

The fowling begins usually after sunrise and ends between 
nine and ten o v clock. The hunter moves by the forest and the dog 
moves by the meadow. In searching for the covey, the best clue is 
the concentration of discarded plumage, because in the places where 
the black grouse stay, they also moult. Young black grouse moult 
individually. If the covey is driven into the trees by an inexperi- 
enced dog, the dog is recalled, and one waits 20 to 30 minutes. 
After a short time, the black grouse fly down and begin to call one 
another. The hunter, by listening to them, knows where to search 
for them. At the beginning of September the black grouse reach 



- 12 - 

maturity; the black cocks remain apart from the covey; in October, 
the black cocks and grey hens form independent coveys. 

At the end of September when the black grouse sit in coveys 
in the trees, the fowling of the black grouse with a stuffed black 
grouse commences. As soon as it begins to snow, the main source of 
food of the black grouse is the birch catkin. The black grouse fly 
regularly during this period into birch-woods. The hunters choose 
their shelter, usually on the edges of the glades near trees in which 
the black grouse sit, or, if in a low forest, near tall birch trees. 
When the wind dies down, the stuffed black grouse is placed on the 
very top of the tree, its beak pointing into the sun; if it is windy, 
its beak should be pointed into the wind. Everything is ready before 
the sunrise. Here, it is possible to use the chasers who carefully 
chase the black grouse from the trees and towards the shelter. The 
best wait is on a quiet, bright and not too chilly day. 

In the winter the hunters exploit the habit, peculiar to 
the black grouse, of spending the night under the snow where they 
are protected from the wind and the frost. The fowling usually 
commences at the end of October during severe frosts, blizzards and 
in deep snows. At dusk, after the feeding, the black grouse fly into 
the meadows or into a thin forest. Once there, they either settle 
down in the trees or directly on the snow, push a hole through the 
snow all the way to the ground and form a passage about one half of 
a meter long. They spend the night at the end of this passage. In 
the morning they re-emerge either through the snow directly above 
them, or, if an ice-crust formed overnight, they fly out through the 
hole they pushed in the snow on the previous night. The entire covey 
usually spends the night on not too large an area. 

The hunters reach this area on skis, most frequently at 
dusk, when the fowl are under the snow. The black grouse hold up 
very well during that time and a good shot has considerable success. 
The deeper the snow, the easier the fowling, especially on dull days 
and during a fresh snow-fall, when the black grouse sit under the 
snow for the better part of the day. 

During the spring mating, the black grouse is hunted by 
the already known method. 

As is evident from this article, even in hunting, the 
proverb applies: Different region - Different custom, 

According to the Soviet sources. 



- 13 - 

INAUGURAL MEETING 01 MIDWEST PHEASANT COUNCIL, 
MADELIA, MINNESOTA, JANUARY 14-15, 1958 

by 
J. K. Reynolds 



Report of Attendance 

When the Association of the Midwest Fish, Game and 
Conservation Commissioners held its Annual Meeting at Itasca State 
Park, Minnesota, on July 10th and 11th last, the attached resolution 
was passed. 

In order to implement this resolution, the inaugural 
meeting of the Midwest Pheasant Council was held at the Madelia 
Research Station, near Madelia, Minnesota, on January 14th and 15th, 
1958. (See attached list for attendance;. 

In brief, the purposes for which the Council was formed are: 

a) Elimination and duplication in pheasant and research 
investigation, 

b) Increased efficiency, 

c) Co-ordination and integration of efforts 

It was decided that attendance would be limited to those 
persons actively engaged in pheasant research or in supervision of 
pheasant research. However, some discretion may be left to the 
official delegates, providing that care was taken to keep the atten- 
dance down to an absolute minimum. 

It was felt that the meeting should preferably be held 
between the beginning of January and the middle of April each year, 
with a distinct preference for the end of this period. 

The locations of the various meetings should be selected 
with care to avoid duplication of similar biotypes. Meetings should 
preferably have a range of about three days of which one day should 
be devoted to field trips. 

Subject to the approval of the authorities of the State 
of Ohio, next year's meeting will be held in northern Ohio, probably 
at Bowling Green, with the field trip being organized to Pelee Island, 
Ontario. Should these arrangements not prove to be possible, an area 
in Southwestern Nebraska will be selected. 

Regarding Officers for the direction of the Council's 
activities, it is agreed that there should be a Chairman, Vice-chair- 
man, and Sec.-Treas. The Chairman would be the official delegate 
from that State which is playing host to the respective year's meeting, 
The Vice-chairman would be the representative of the following year's 
post State. The Sec.-Treas. will be elected biennially. 



- 14 - 

Regarding by-laws, for the Council, the current yearns 
Chairman, Dr. S. W. Harris, of Minnesota, is to appoint a Committee 
to prepare a draft set of by-laws for presentation next year. 

Discussions 

1) Chief problem - virtually each State and the Province 
of Ontario agreed that inadequate harvest of present crops is the 
leading problem in the northern and eastern sections of pheasant 
range of North America today. Mr. V. S. Janson is to canvass each 
state and province individually and incorporate their views with 
remarks made at the meeting into a consolidated report of this topic. 

In discussions it was pointed out that longer seasons 
and larger bag limits are unlikely to result in an appreciably 
larger harvest of pheasants, since few hunters hunt towards the end 
of the pheasant seasons, and few hunters take the legal bag limit 
already in existence. It was suggested that there is some merit in 
split seasons, which present two or more "opening days". Seasonal 
effects were discussed (e.g. a wet autumn with late harvest of such 
farm crops as corn and soy beans results in a poor kill in the early 
part of the season and a resultant early loss of interest on the part 
of the hunters). Michigan is confident that you cannot overshoot 
cock pheasants. Tnis is supported by data from the Rose Lake 
Experiment Station, where it has been found to be almost, if not 
completely impossible to reduce the population of pheasants below two 
cocks per one hundred acres of range. 

2) WHAT RESEARCH IS BEING DONE? (This excludes routine 
management activities). 

a) Minnesota 

1) Determination of recovery of stocked birds and their 
contribution to the bag, 

2) Mortality of pheasants in mowing operations, 

3) Population studies in an area of 36 square miles (one 
entire township). 

PLANNED; Experimental aerial census techniques. 

b) Nebraska 

1) Compilation of data from hunting seasons, 

2) Aerial counts and correlations with other "Census" 
techniques such as crowing counts and brood counts, 

3) Cover mapping of a special study area of 25 square 
miles, 

4) Marking techniques, 

5) Studies of recoveries of stocked birds of various ages, 

6) Fluoroscopy of hens (on an average 10% carry shot). 

PLANNED; Evaluation of roadside cover. 



- 15 - 



c) South Dakota 



1) Evaluation of sex and age data, 

2) Aerial census techniques and tests of validity, 

3) Detailed ecological studies by eight Biologists, 

4) Compilation of data from open seasons, 

5) Tabulation and evaluation of weekly changes in road- 
side vegetation. 

PLANNED: A study of production of pheasants in 
various cover types. 

d) North Dakota 

1) Analysis of eight years 7 data covering weekly changes 
in vegetation in selected pheasant range to evaluate 
both long and short term changes and their effects 
on populations and nesting success. 

e) Ohio 

1) There are no full-time Biologists working on pheasant 
management or research, 

2) There are no full scale Research projects underway, 
but a routine collection of management data from 
hunting seasons is made. 

3) There is also a project aimed at evaluating inventory 
techniques and another in which it is hoped to test 
the effectiveness of various genetic strains of 
pheasants to permit the establishment of pheasants 

in many areas from which they are now absent. 

f) Illinois 

1) Determination of kill estimates, 

2) Evaluation of crowing-count data. In the Sibley Study 
Area (36 square miles) a full scale year-round basic 
ecological study, by a full-time resident Biologist 
and staff, 

3) Evaluation of possible effectiveness of availability 
of calcium and other soil components in determining 
pheasant range in Illinois. 

g) Colorado 

1) Evaluation of roadside crowing-count s as indicies of 
population densities. At present, approximately 
eleven different techniques are in use. 

2) Studies of the effect of fungicides, herbicides and 
insecticides on pheasants by nesting, mortality of 
chicks, mortality of adults, distribution. 



- 16 - 

3) There are three students employed on this full-time 
graduate study, involving the evaluation of a program 
of habitat improvement that has been in effect since 
1949 when there was an extremely heavy winter kill 

of pheasants. The cost of this programme to date is 
approximately half a million dollars. 

Preliminary evaluation indicates that the programme 
has not increased populations and its effectiveness 
in preventing high storm mortality has not yet been 
put to the test. There is, however, strong indica- 
tion that in the "improved" areas, hunter success is 
about two and one-half times as high as in "unimproved" 
areas. This is very important, since under-shooting 
of existing populations is extremely prevalent in 
Colorado. 

4) Test of value of "split seasons". In 1957 there was 
a triple-split season (3-3 day seasons with one week 
intervals). It was found to be very effective in 
increasing the kill. 

h) North Dakota 

There is one Biologist on pheasant work full-time, 
and another about half time. 

1) A study of year-round mortality on a specific study 
area, 

2) An evaluation of all experimental food patches and 
habitat improvement in an area which normally carries 
almost no pheasants and is not open to hunting. 
Preliminary indications are that the program will 
result in new pheasant range open to hunting. 

3) Habitat improvement, by means of planting woody 
species, such as Chinese Elm, Plum and Honey-suckle. 

4) Evaluation of effectiveness of a Soil Bank "Conserva- 
tion Reserve" programme. 

i) Iowa 

1) Study of pheasant productivity and survival, 

2) Study of diseases of pheasants, 

3) Evaluation of a restocking programme in which wild- 
trapped pheasants are being trapped from an area of 
high pheasant population and transferred to an area 
of low population in the hope of establishing parti- 
cularly well-adapted strains in poorer areas, 

4) Evaluation of various farm grasses as pheasant cover. 

PLANNED: Development of improved hunter report cards. 

j) Kansas 

1) A long-term basic ecological study of pheasants by 
a fulltime graduate student of the University of 
Kansas, 



- 17 - 

k) Michigan 

1) Habitat evaluation. This is a comparison of crowing- 
counts on "improved areas" with those on "unimproved 
areas", 

2) Study of nesting-cover preferences. 

PLANNED i 

1) Determination of nesting success of wild birds, 

2) Improvement of resources and reliability of data for 
establishment of seasons and bag limits and for 
forecasting the harvest „ 

1) Indiana 

1) No current projects* except inventory and routine 
management procedures. 

PLANNED i 

1) Habitat evaluation, 

2) Determination of reasons for discontinuities of 
pheasant distribution. 

m) Ontario 

1) Little, but inventory and routine management programs, 

2) Van Nogtrand's study of distribution and populations 
in Lambton County. 

n) Wisconsin 

1) Studies of distribution of pheasants, 

2) Fluroscopy of hens for determination of hen mortality 
in hunting seasons, 

3) Evaluation of stocking program. More money has been 
spent on stocking programs in Wisconsin than on all 
other phases of pheasant management combined. The 
current study is a 3-or 4-year project at the end of 
which it is hoped to have specific and detailed 
analysis available for recommendations to the Legis- 
lature, 

1+) Basic physiology of the pheasant. This is a long- 
term large-scale study in which the University of 
Wisconsin and the Department of Conservation are 
co-operating. A large proportion of the study, 
involves adreno-pituitary physiology, 

5) A genetic study. This is now being finalized, 

6) Compilation of 11 years* data of population dynamics 

(Wagner) 

7) Evaluation of fall vs. spring stocking of hens. 
Indications are that fall-stocked hens contribute 
0.2 cocks in the bag per hen released, while spring 
releases yield nearly one cock per hen released. The 
re-stocking programme in Wisconsin costs about one- 
third of a million dollars. The total annual stocking 
is about 200,000 birds of which three-quarters are 
day-old chicks. 



census methods. 



- IS - 

Discussions res Populations, kill estimates and 

a) Desirability of uniformity and standardization, 

b) There was a general agreement on the necessity of 
establishing standards of procedure, reporting and 
evaluating throughout this Midwest area. At 
present no single method of census or population 
index can be applied throughout the entire area. 

c) A Committee (Harris and Seubert) was appointed to 
compile a report and recommendations* 

Other Committees appointed? 

1) By-laws - E. B. Speaker (Iowa) Chairman 

Members - Sandford (Colorado) 
Ginn (Indiana) 

2) Committee on regulations and hunting. Agee 
(Nebraska) 

3) Research needs. Janson (Michigan) 

4) Report of nesting. Wagner (Wisconsin) 



Resolution 



WHEREAS pheasants are of major importance in almost every 
state represented in the Association of Midwest Fish and Game 
Commissioners, and 

WHEREAS research is needed to provide answers to management 
to cope with land use changes, and 

WHEREAS many states have special facilities to carry out 
research needed throughout the midwest states, 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Association of 
Midwest Fish and Game Commissioners for purposes of eliminating 
duplication, increasing efficiency, co-ordination and integration 
hereby adopts a pheasant management council (or technical advisory 
committee) consisting of one or more pheasant technicians from 
each state to prepare lists of needed research projects, list mutu- 
ally adopted principles of pheasant research findings, agree on 
areas in which specialized research should be carried out and which 
state has the best facilities including technicians and training to 
carry out certain needed research projects and to carry out research 
assignments given to them by the Association, and further, in order 
to accomplish their assignments the technicians meet once a year 
at designated areas at which time they can exchange knowledge, 
appoint work committees and make reports and that such reports shall 
be annually made to the Association either at the annual meeting 
or by circularized reports. 



- 19 - 



At tendance 

i 

COLORADO; 

Sandfort, Wayne W. 
Room 212 Petroleum Bldg. , 
1129 Colorado Avenue, 
Grand Junction, Colorado. 

ILLINOIS; 

Preno, William L., 
State Office Bldg., 
400 So. Spring Street, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

Greeley, Dr. Fred, 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv., 
111. Depto of Conservation, 
Urbana, Illinois. 

INDIANA: 

Ginn, W. E., 
Rural Route 7> 
Columbia City, Indiana. 

IOWA; 

Speaker, E. B., 
Iowa State Cons. Comm., 
East 7th and Court Av., 
Des Moines 9> Iowa. 

Nomsen, R. C. , 
R • R. 2 , 
Hampton, Iowa. 

KANSAS: 

Rowe, Gerry, 
Dept. Zoology, 
U. of Kansas, 
Manhattan, Kansas. 

MANITOBA: 

No representative present 

MICHIGAN: 

Janson, Victor S., 
Michigan Dept. Cons., 
Lansing 26, Michigan. 

MINNESOTA: 

Harris, Dr. Stanley W. 
600 Shubert Bldg., 
St. Paul 2, Minnesota. 

Nelson, Maynard M. , 
311 South Elm Street 
Fairmont, Minnesota. 

Erickson, A., 
Dept. Conservation, 
600 Shubert Bldg., 
St. Paul 2, Minnesota. 



MINNESOTA: 

Chesness, Robt., 
Dept. of Conservation, 
600 Shubert Bldg., 
St. Paul 2, Minnesota. 

MISSOURI: 

No representative present. 

NEBRASKA: 

Agee, Phillip, 

Game, Forestation & Parks 

Commission 
Lincoln 9» Nebraska. 

Linden, Raymond, 

Game, Forestation & Parks 

Commission, 
Lincoln 9, Nebraska. 

NORTH DAKOTA: 

Grondahl, Chris, 

North Dakota Game & Fish 

Department, 
Bismarck, North Dakota. 

OHIO: 

Edwards, W. R., 
Division of Wildlife, 
Dept. Natural Resources, 
1500 Dublin Road, 
Columbus 12, Ohio. 

ONTARIO: 

Reynolds, Dr. J. K., 
Ontario Dept. Lands & 

Forests, 
Aylmer West, Ont., Can. 

SOUTH DAKOTA: 

Seubert, Dr. John L., 

Mitchell, 

South Dakota. 

Trautman, Carl, 
Brooking, South Dakota. 

Dahlgren, Bob, 
South Dakota. 

WISCONSIN: 

Wagner, Frederic H., 
Nevin State Fish Hatchery, 
Route 3? 
Madison 5> Wisconsin. 



- 20 - 

PHEASANT HARVEST - 1957, LAKE HURON DISTRICT 

by 
R. E. Mason 



Methods 

The information appearing in this report was collected in 
the field by sixteen personnel of the Lake Huron District who 
patrolled the various counties and interviewed hunters each day of 
the season. 

The duration of the season in the County of Oxford was 
four days, from October 26th to the 30th inclusive. The Counties of 
Brant, Halton, Huron, Waterloo, Wellington, and Went worth had a 7 
day season from October 26th to November 2nd inclusive. The 
remainder of the District was open for two weeks, from October 26th, 
to November 9th. 

Information was collected on a township basis regarding the 
use of dogs, numbers of hunters, numbers of birds bagged, and numbers 
of birds seen. The information is presented in Table I, stratified 
according to counties. 

Observations 

4$. 7% of 341 parties checked were using dogs. Of these, 
many parties were using two or more dogs giving an average of 1.46 
dogs per party. 

TABLE I - Hunter Statistics 









With- 


No. 


No. 




No. Pheasants 




No. 


With 


out 


Hun- 


Birds 


No. 


Seen: 


Not Bagged 


County 


Twps 


Dogs 


Dogs 


ters 


Bagged 


Hours 


Males 


Females 


Brant 


2 


15 


7 


57 


21 


237.5 


20 


73 


Huron 


2 


7 


15 


55 


19 


391.0 


10 


35 


Oxford 


11 


79 


53 


371 


130 


1477.0 


139 


429 


Waterloo 


1 


23 


36 


117 


42 


535.0 


- 


- 


Wellington 


1 


12 


30 


91 


17 


295.5 


16 


25 


Wentworth 


7 

24 


30 
166 


34 
175 


143 

334 


20 


34^.5 
3234.5 


16 
251 


33 


TOTALS 


249 


600 



Table II gives the hunting success for each county, 
expressed as the percent successful hunters. In all counties, 334 
hunters were checked with 249 birds for an overall hunting success 
of 29.3$. 



• 



. 



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■ 




'- . 


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- 21 - 



TABLE II - Hunting Success 





No. 


No. Birds 


Percent 


Birds Bagged 


County 


Hunters 


Bagged 


Success 


Per Hour 


Brant 


57 


21 


36. B 


.OB 


Huron 


55 


19 


34.6 


.05 


Oxford 


371 


130 


35,0 


.09 


Waterloo 


117 


42 


35.0 


.OB 


Wellington 


91 


17 


IB. 7 


.06 


Wentworth 


143 


20 


14.0 


.06 



TOTALS 



B34 



249 



29. B 



.076 



As can be seen from Table II, hunting success for the 
better pheasant range in the district was about constant with 
slightly more than one-third of the hunters being successful. 

The following sex ratios have been computed on a series 
of chi square tests. Some consideration has been given in the 
calculations to hunter bias in reporting sight observations of hens. 
This bias would originate with hunters who were not successful in 
bagging a cock pheasant but who "saw lots of hens". Some bias 
might also be introduced by the incorrect sexing of short-tailed 
males, but this would probably be slight. 

The ratios for each county are presented in Table III. 

TABLE III - Pheasant Sex Ratios 



Observed Males No. of Females Per Male 



County 


Birds Bagged 


Male 


Female 


Pre 


-season 


Post-season 


Brant 


21 


20 


73 




2 


4 


Huron 


19 


10 


35 




1 


3 


Oxford 


130 


1B9 


429 




1.5 


2 


Waterloo 


42 


— 


• 




— 


- 


Wellington 


17 


16 


25 




1 


1 


Wentworth 


20 


16 


3B 




1 


2 



TOTALS 



249 



251 600 



1.3 



2,5 



The hunting pressure in Counties having a four day season 
declined rapidly after the opening day and remained relatively 
constant for the rest of the season. During this latter period, 
hunting parties were actually difficult to find for interviews. 

Figure I illustrates the daily hunting pressure for Oxford 
County. The hunting pressure is expressed as the percent hours 
hunted on a given date based on a total of 1,417.0 hours. 

Hunting pressure is expressed as percent hours in the field 
as this gives a more accurate picture than percent hunters in the 
field. This is because many local hunters are in the field after 






-. ' '• 



31fj 



.1 1 



. 



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■/. •.,:•.'" 



i 















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• ■ ' i !■■■„-. 

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.:•■'.'■ 



- 22 - 

work or on half holidays, but of necessity cannot hunt for the full 
day. Hence figures for numbers of hunters would not be comparable 
from day to day, while figures for time spent in the field are 
comparable. Curves based on percent hunters are shown in Figures 
III and IV for comparison purposes. 

Hunting pressure in counties exhibiting a seven day season 
declined rapidly after the first day to remain relatively constant 
throughout the remainder of the hunt until the final day when the 
pressure increased to slightly more than one-half that of the first 
day. During the period between the opening and final days, parties 
of hunters were again very scarce. 

Figure II illustrates the hunting pressure for all counties 
exhibiting a seven day season. Data are expressed as in Figure I, 
only based on a total of 1,570.0 hours. 

Figure III - Hunting Pressure by the Day - Oxford County 
(expressed as percent hunters). 

Figure IV - Hunting Pressure by the Day - All Counties 
with Seven Day Season (expressed as percent hunters). 

Curves drawn for the percent hunter success each day of 
the season indicate a gradual decrease from the first to the last 
of the season. Unfortunately sample sizes for days other than 
opening day are too small to give statistically significant results. 
However, curves drawn for the numbers of pheasants shot each day 
of the season do indicate the decline in hunter success from the 
first to the last of the season. As can be seen from Figure III, 
no more birds were shot on the last day of the season than on the 
second day (in counties with a seven day season), even though the 
effective hunting pressure was twice as great on the last day. 

Figure V - Percent Pheasant Shot Each Day in All Counties 
With Seven Day Season. 



- 23 - 



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- 28 - 

Conclusions 

(1) During the period from 1953-1955* studies were carried on 
in North Norwich Township, Oxford County, to determine the percent 
return of released birds in hunters 7 bag. Averages for this three 
year period show that the return of game farm raised cocks was only 
8.4$ but that these birds made up 47 »7% of all birds shot by hunters. 
The carry over from one year to the next of these cocks was less 
than 0.5%. Hence the conclusion is drawn that while game farm raised 
cocks do contribute substantially to the hunt, they do not abet the 
production of "natural" birds the following spring to any great 
extent. 

Indications are that game farm raised hens similarly may 
contribute only slightly to the "natural" production of pheasants. 
If this were so, then it would seem advisable that hunters be 
allowed to legally take perhaps one hen pheasant in addition to the 
3 cocks already allowed. 

An investigation is being planned to determine the biological 
advisability of this proposals The legalization of shooting a hen 
pheasant would certainly curtail the waste of birds shot mistakenly 
or purposely by hunters, only to be left in the field. 

(2) As illustrated in Figures I, II, III and IV, hunting pressure 
shows a marked decrease after the opening day. In counties having 

a 7 day season, the pressure increases on the final day but not to 
the same proportions as that of the first day. The number of birds 
shot does increase but not proportionately to the numbers of hunters, 
indicating a decline in the hunter success as the season advances. 

It would seem advisable, therefore, that consideration be 
given to opening the season for pheasants for at least 7 days in all 
counties in the Lake Huron District. Certainly hunting pressure does 
not warrant any shorter season, and conditions of cover and the 
declining hunter success would protect the pheasants from being 
overshot. 



_ 



- 29 - 



JAMES BAY REPORT, 1957 

by 
G. F. Boyer 



The annual fall waterfowl investigations in the James Bay 
Region were carried out again this year by the Canadian Wildlife 
Service. The goose camps at Cabbage Willows, Hannah Bay, North 
Bluff and Albany were visited and several days were spent on the 
Moose River estuary. The period of investigation was between 
September 16 and October 20 and in addition to the routine bag checks 
two aerial surveys were made» One of these surveys followed the 
coastline from Hannah Bay along the west coast of James Bay and 
Hudson Bay to Winusk. This survey will be discussed in more detail 
later in this report. The other flight, a beaver survey carried 
out by the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, provided an 
opportunity for me to see the country along the drainage of the Moose 
and Abitibi rivers. Dr. G. M. Stirrett was present during the first 
part of the work and showed me the technique of flock counting, 
sexing, aging and weighing of blue geese, and in general acquainted 
me with the important problems of the region. 

This year a checking point was set up on each side of the 
Moose river just above Ship Sands Island. These checking points were 
run by the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests assisted by a 
R.C.M. Police Constable and were manned 24 hours a day. They 
provided a complete check of all hunters returning up the river from 
hunting areas along the James Bay coast extending from North Bluff 
to Hannah Bay. 

All members of the R.C.M. Police and Department of Lands 
and Forests were most helpful and the aerial transport provided by 
the latter, enabled me to visit many places which would have other- 
wise been impossible to see. Free accommodation was provided by 
Wheeler Airlines at Cabbage Willows and by the O.N.R. at Hannah Bay. 
Unfortunately I was not able to visit Lemoine Island but Col. 
MacLean very kindly supplied me with complete information on the 
hunting activities at his camp. 

Fall Flight 

Observations and interviews gave a strong indication that 
the migration was considerably delayed. In addition to the aerial 
count mentioned previously, Lands and Forests personnel provided 
aerial figures for geese between Winusk and Fort Severn. These 
counts showed the picture between September 17 and 22 to be, in 
round figures: 

Place Blues-Snows Canadas Unidentified Geese 



225 


900 


2000 


1250 


9409 


805 




not counted 


8200 


2150 


34000 


6000 



Hannah Bay 

Moosonee-Albany 2000 1250 1450 

Albany-Attawapiskat 9409 805 300 

Attawapiskat-Lake River 

Lake River-Winusk 

Winusk-Severn 



: 



i 



, 






■ 



i 



• 



. i .. 



. ■. . • - ■ 



- 30 - 

From the preceding it may be seen that the blues and snows 
were still well north in late September and that the Canadas were 
still present in good numbers. There is good reason to believe that 
many of the blues and snows had not yet arrived from the breeding 
grounds as the figures for the Winusk-Severn area were little more 
than half last year v s estimate (Ont. Dept. L. & F.). Large numbers 
of blues were reported in the vicinity of the Belcher Islands in 
early October by pilots of the Austin Airways. My personal observa- 
tions showed a heavy flight at North Bluff on October 8 and 9 and 
on October 20 observations at Hannah Bay indicated that large flocks 
of blue geese were leaving the James Bay region for the south. 

Breeding Success, 1957 

(a) Family Flocks 

A total of 1545 family flocks was counted between September 
26 and October 20. The results of these counts are outlined in 
Table I. It is interesting to note that the family sizes in the 
Hannah Bay area were approximately the same in late October as in 
the early part of the season. Cooch found brood sizes to be 3.20 
for October 1 and 2.80 for October 15 in 1956. This year's brood 
average of 3«06 compares favorably with Cooch 9 s figures and suggest 
that there was an improvement in the survival of the young during 
the 1957 season. 

(b) Ratio of Adults to Young 

All observed flocks were counted and an attempt was made 
to identify and isolate family groups. Table II gives the age 
composition in total numbers as obtained by the flock counts. This 
table is subdivided into "Family Flocks" and "Other Flocks". The 
latter were composed either entirely of "Whiteheads" or contained 
a combination of more than two "Whiteheads" plus a number of young. 
This would indicate that a good proportion of these "Other flocks" 
consisted of either sub adults or non breeding birds, although on 
some occasions two or more families may have united in one large 
flock. The counts at North Bluff on October 8 and 9 showed a con- 
siderable drop in the adult population indicating that large numbers 
of non breeders had already left the area. 

The percentage composition and ratio of adults to young 
are shown in Table III. Table IV compares these percentages and 
ratios for the period between 1946 and 1957. Judging from this 
table it would seem that the breeding success this year was an 
improvement over 1954 and 1956. 



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- 3$ - 

Species Composition of the Goose Flight 

Several families of what appeared to be pure snows were 
counted. Table V may give some indication of the number of snows in 
the breeding population and their effect on the blue geese migrating 
through this region. 

Table VI shows the percentage composition of the three 
major species of geese. Samples are based on the total number of 
birds seen during the counts. The percentage of Canada geese is 
somewhat higher than usual t 



K 



TABLE II - Age Composition - Flock Counts - Blue Geese , 1957. 



Place and Date 



Family Flocks Other Flocks 



Total 



C. Willows - Sept. 26-27 

Hannah B. - Sept. 28-30 

Albany - Oct. 2-5 

N. Bluff - Oct. 8-9 
Moose R. 

Est. - Oct. 13-14 

Hannah B. - Oct. 19-20 

Total Sept. 26-0ct. 20 



Adults 


Young 


Adults 


Young 


Adults 


Young 


544 
735 
543 
143 


1047 

1189 

871 

223 


619 

246 

409 

27 


165 
45 
96 
10 


1163 
981 
952 
170 


1212 

1234 

967 

233 


157 
665 


256 
1145 


19 
155 


6 
137 


176 
820 


262 

1282 


2787 


4731 


1475 


459 


4262 


5190 



x Including mixed families and hybrids - one parent a snow. 

TABLE III - Percentage Composition Adults and Young - Blue Geese 3 *, 
1957. 



Place and Date 



Percent 



Ratio 



Number in Sample 



Adults Young Adults Young 



Co Willows - Sept. 26-27 

Hannah B. - Sept. 28-30 

Albany - Oct. 2-5 

N. Bluff - Oct. 8-9 
Moose R. 

Est. - Oct. 13-14 

Hannah B. - Oct. 19-20 

Total Sept. 26-0ct. 20 



49 
44 

49.5 
42 


51 
56 

50.5 
58 


1 
1 
1 
1 


s 1.03 
. 1.26 
. 1.02 
: 1.37 


40 
39 


60 
61 


1 
1 


1 1.49 
: 1.56 



45 



55 



2375 

2215 

1919 

403 

438 

2102 



; 1.22 



9452 



k Including mixed families and hybrids - one parent a snow. 



- 33 - 



TABLE IV - Comparative Adult - Juvenile Ratio Blue Geese 
1946-1957. 



Year 


Percent 




Re 


itio 




Adults 
67 


Juvenile 
33 


Adult 
1 


s 

o 


Juvenile 


1946 


0.49 


1947 


73 


27 


1 


s 




0.37 


1948 


40 


60 


1 




■ 


1.5 


1949 


35 


65 


1 




• 


1.35 


1950 


57 


43 


1 




a 


0.75 


1951 


60 


40 


1 


o 

o 


0.66 


1952 


39 


61 


1 


• 


1.6 


1953 


41 


59 


1 




o 


1.4 


1954 


95 


5 


1 


o 
o 


0.06 


1955 


- 


- 




- 




1956 


50 


50 


1 


o 


1.0 


1957 


45 


55 


1 


o 




1.22 



No. of Geese In Sample 



2300 

16900 

700 

500 

2539 
672 

8145 
10928 
15103 

5770 
9452 



TABLE V - Species Composition (Snows-blues) in the Family Flocks 



Locality 



Cabbage Willows 
Hannah Bay (1) 
Albany 
North Bluff 
Moose R. Estuary 
Hannah Bay (2) 



Total 



Blues 



Mixed 



Snows 



Total 



No. 


Percent 
89.2 


No. 
32 


Percent 
10.2 


No. 
2 


Percent 
0.6 




280 


314 


3 59 


89.1 


37 


9.2 


7 


1.7 


403 


279 


90.6 


14 


4.5 


15 


4.9 


308 


72 


87.8 


3 


3.7 


7 


8.5 


82 


89 


96.7 


1 


1.1 


2 


2.2 


92 


369 


95.6 
91.4 


10 
97 


2.6 

6.1 


7 
40 


1.8 


386 


1448 


2.5 


1585 



TABLE VI - Percentage Composition of the Three Major Species of 
Geese. 



Locality 



Cabbage Willows 
Hannah Bay (1) 
Albany 
North Bluff 
Moose R. Estuary 
Hannah Bay (2) 



Total 



Percent by Species 



Blues 


Snows 


Canadas 


Total Sample 


97 


2 


1 


2674 


95 


4 


1 


2331 


76 


5 


19 


2530 


55 


5 


40 


711 


97 


3 





452 


97 


3 


trace 


2172 


89 


4 


7 


10870 



. 



■ -- . , 



. .. 



. 



.. .. ". 



-• 



■ 












- . , 



' 






- 34 - 

White Hunter Kill at the Organized Goose Camps 

(a) Daily Kill 

Table VII shows that the daily kill for the four main 
camps averaged 2.56 geese as compared with 3 .92 in 1956. The biggest 
drop in kill occurred in September and the camps showing the greatest 
contrast were Albany and North Bluff. 

(b) Total Kill 

The total kill per hunter at the five organized camps is 
shown in Table VIII. In every case except one there was a drop in 
the goose bag. At Hannah Bay and Cabbage Willows the difference 
was slight being only 0.5 birds per hunter in each case. It was 
considerable, however, at Albany and North Bluff where the drop was 
4.2 birds and 8.4 birds per hunter respectively. 

( c) Ratio of Adults to Young in the Blue Goose Kill 

Table IX shows that the age ratio of the kill was in 
favour of the young in all five camps. If this table is compared 
with Tables III and IV it tends to support the indication that this 
years production was slightly better than average. 

Weights of the Blue Geese 

A total of 463 blue geese was weighed in 1957. These 
weights are compared with previous years in Table X. In all cases 
weights were down from last year. This loss in weight appeared to 
be more noticeable in the case of adult females and juveniles of 
both sexes, possibly indicating a later breeding season in that the 
females did not have quite as long to recover from egg laying and 
the young birds were not as fully developed as usual. 

TABLE VII - Daily Hunter Success at Four Camps 

Hannah Bay Albany North Bluff Cabbage Willows Average 

September 1.79 2.08 I.84 1.96 1,94 

October 4.05 2.99 1.86 4.40 3.03 

Average 3.09 2.54 1.85 2.79 2.56 






"' ! 



, 



■ ' ■ ' . 



■ ' "'; '" ' • 



... 



. - ' 



- , 



• 






. ... . ..... . . ■ 



- 35 - 



TABLE VIII - 











No. of 


No. of 




No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


Geese Per 


Ducks Per 


Location 


Hunters 


Geese 


Ducks 


Hunter 


Hunter 


Hannah Bay 


131 


1173 


475 


9.0 


3.6 


Cabbage Willows 


34 


433 


293 


12.7 


3.8 


Albany- 


107 


1026 


63 


9.6 


0.6 


North Bluff 


85 


571 


115 


6.7 


1.4 


MacLeans 


9 


139 


43 


15.4 


5.3 



366 



3347 



1004 



9.1 



2.7 



TABLE IX - Ratio of Adults to Young in the Blue Goose Kill, 1957 . 

Location Adult l Young Numbers In Sample 

400 
105 
1054 
532 
403 



Cabbage Willows 


1 : 1.15 


MacLean's 


1 % 1.26 


Hannah Bay 


1 : 1,66 


Albany 


1 s 1.36 


North Bluff 


1 ; 1.59 



l : 1.47 



2454 



TABLE X - Weights in Pounds of Blue Geese 

Five Year 
Classification Average Weight 1956 Weight 



1957 









Number 

134 
109 


Weight 


Juvenile Male 

Female 


5.00 
4.70 


4.71 
4.30 


4.55 
4.25 


Adult Male 

Female 


6^12 
5.75 


6.01 
5.73 


81 
69 


6.02 
5.35 


Sub adult Male 

Female 


5.39 

5.47 


5.33 
5.68 


32 

38 


5.74 
5.24 


Moose River Estuary 









Daily records similar to those in use at the sporting 
camps were kept at the checking stations. I feel that there should 
be some modification in the forms in use as under present circum- 
stances it is impossible to differentiate between local and outside 
kill and the data cannot be broken down into individual daily bag. 
We have, however, information on the following: 

(a) Residence Address of Hunters. 



- 36 - 
Residence of Hunters Checked at Moose River Station 



Address of Hunters 



Moose Factory and Moosonee 
Other Places in Ontario 
Province of Quebec 
United States 

Total 



Number of Trips 



One trip Subsequent trips Total trips 



225 

124 

1 

40 



227 
17 



432 

141 

1 

40 



390 



274 



664 



This table shows that, as expected, by far the greater 
part of the hunting pressure was from local hunters. However, 
outside hunters made a significant contribution. In fact, the 
number of outside hunters exceeded that of any of the goose camps 
(165 as compared with 131 at Hannah Bay). 



trips. 



Some local hunters, as would be expected, made several 



This year, for the first time, employed Indians at 
Moosonee and Moose Factory purchased licenses and came under the 
normal waterfowl regulations. In the future it should be possible 
to separate these hunters from the other Indians for the purpose of 
analyzing kill data. 

(b) Kill In The Moose River Estuary Area 

Total Kill Checked At Moose River Stations 



No. of 
Hunters 

390 



No. of 
Geese 

3630 



No. of 
Ducks 

1667 



Geese Per 
Hunter 

9.3 



Ducks Per 
Hunter 

4.3 



Blue Goose Kill Moose River Estuary Area 

Adults Juveniles Totals 



1752 



1592 



3344 



From the preceding statistics it will be noted that the 
kill for this area is not excessively large. It should be pointed 
out that several of the local hunters were out at least six times 
and yet the total kill per person corresponds very closely with 
that at the goose camps. 

The age ratio of the blue goose kill is in favour of the 
old birds. This probably is largely due to the fact that most 
of the hunting pressure was by local Indians. Other investigators 
have pointed out that the Indians are selective hunters and make 
a special attempt to shoot white-headed geese. These figures, 
therefore, do not necessarily indicate an age ratio in favour of 
adult birds in the flocks frequenting this general area. 



•;■•■"'■. 



' . .' 



'■■■ 



- 37 - 



Species of Waterfowl in the Bag for the Camps and the Moose Estuary 
Species Number Percent of Total 



Blue goose 
Snow goose 
Canada goose 
Richardson* s goose 
Brant 

Pintail 
Black 
Mallard 
Others 

Total 



6156 

446 

173 

19 

6 

1294 
646 
470 
115 

9325 



60.6 




4.8 




1.9 


) 67.5 


0.2 




trace 




13.8 




6.9 

5.2 


j 32.5 


1.2 




100.0 





The principal hunting effort in the James Bay area is 
directed towards the geese but in spite of this it will be seen that 
ducks form a substantial portion of the bag. 

Indian Kill 

We now have a very good idea of the white hunter kill in 
the James Bay area but the native kill which probably constitutes 
by far the greatest hunting pressure on the geese is still a matter 
of considerable controversy. 

Figures obtained from the Department of Lands and Forests 
through interviews by their personnel with Indians show the native 
kill for the fall and spring of 1956 and 1957 to be as follows? 

Waterfowl Kill by Indian Bands for Fall and Spring 

1956 and 1957 



Species 


Moo 


sonee 


Albany 


Attawapiskat 

Fall Spring 

486 1296 
4459 2596 
1108 529 

6075 4421 


Total 




Fall 

189 
3228 
1003 

4420 


Spring 

569 
581 
290 

1440 


Fall 

299 

3771 

659 

4728 


Spring 

1086 

2295 

340 

3721 




Canada goose 
Snow goose 
Ducks 


3923 

16930 

3929 




24782 



Although this does not take into consideration the Indians 
at Winusk and Little River it no doubt accounts for a considerable 
portion of the Indian kill. 

The total goose kill for the fall of 1957 for both Indians 
and whites in the area affected by the Moosonee band was 3630. The 
reported goose kill in 1956 for this area was 3417. It will be 



. , , , 



' 






- 3* - 

noted that these figures agree very closely although the 1957 
figures include an unknown proportion of white hunting pressure. 
This would indicate that the kill reports furnished by the Department 
of Lands and Forests are reasonably correct. 

Kill data of Indian hunters camped at Cabbage Willows 
and Hannah Bay goose camps were obtained by the R.C.M. Police 
Officer stationed at these camps. The kill for Cabbage Willows was; 



No. of 
Hunters 


Geese 
Killed 


Ducks 
Killed 


Geese Per 
Hunter 


Ducks Per 
Hunter 


30 


141 
Blue Goose Kill 


49 


4.7 


1.6 












Adults 


Juveniles 


Total 






85 


51 


136 





The preceding figures were arrived at by bag checking. 
It will be noted that the kill of adult blues was greater than that 
of juveniles, again indicating that the Indians are selective hunters. 

The Indian kill at Hannah Bay, between September 16 and 
October 20 is based on voluntary reports and worked out to 1196 geese 
shot by 27 hunters or 44*3 geese per hunter. Individual figures 
were obtained for each hunter and it was noted that some were far 
more successful than others and bags ranged from 20 to 86 birds. 
There were some Indians at this camp that were not engaged in guiding. 

Enforcement 



In general, the enforcement situation seems much better. 
Six charges were laid by the Lands and Forests personnel and the 
R.C.M. Police on the Moose River estuary. These charges included 
night shooting, unplugged shot guns and having over the possession 
limit. As the result of my personal observations I can say that the 
patrols carried out by Check Station personnel on the Moose estuary 
were most energetic and effective. 

Reports on the use of swamp buggies and lights at North 
Bluff (Hennessey's Camp) were investigated but no evidence was 
found that there was any intent to disturb the geese. These vehicles 
are used to transport hunters to the camp from the mouth of the 
Moose River and between the camp and the blinds. While this use is 
undesirable it is not illegal. I suspect that the very poor hunting 
success at this camp may be influenced by the use of these vehicles 
and also by the general poor location of the camp. Should there be 
occasion to establish hunting camps in the James Bay area in future 
I feel that matters such as these should be thoroughly gone into 
prior to any recommendations for their establishment. 



- 39 - 



Summary 



The goose shooting at James Bay was poorer than average 
and the birds shot were slightly lighter in weight than usual, I 
feel that this was largely due to a later breeding season and 
continued fine and warm weather on the breeding grounds, which 
delayed the migration. The production of young blue geese was 
slightly higher than average this year. 



- 40 - 

MIDWINTER INVENTORY FOR ONTARIO - 1953 

by 
G, F, Boyer 
Canadian Wildlife Service 



This year the same areas were covered as in 1957. This 
included ground counts by Nature Clubs and private individuals as 
well as an aerial survey by the Ontario Department of Lands and 
Forests. The aerial coverage included Lake Ontario and the St. 
Lawrence River from Presqu'ile to the Quebec border and Lake Huron, 
St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Detroit River and Lake Erie shore 
to Niagara River, Lake Ontario to Hamilton Bay. A Beaver aircraft 
was used and personnel from Tweed, Kemptville and Aylmer Forest 
Districts took part. 

There was heavy icing around Howe and Wolfe Island as well 
as Amherst Island except on the east side. The south side of Prince 
Edward County was open. A large portion of the St. Lawrence River 
was iced over. The east end of Lake Erie was clear of ice and in 
the west end a channel one-quarter of a mile wide was clear. Small 
streams and marshes, Inner Long Point Bay, Rondeau Bay and ports 
were frozen over. A few small open pockets appeared in Lake St. Clair. 
St. Clair River was largely closed and Detroit River was closed in 
some sections. There was extensive ice in Lake Huron. 

In the attached table columns (1) and (2) showed a com- 
parison with the 1957 coverage. In column (3) are listed the areas 
duplicated by the Michigan Conservation Department which included 
the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and were taken on the same day 
as our aerial counts. It was agreed that the Michigan Department 
should include these areas in its report to the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. Therefore, the Ontario totals for the purpose of 
the continent-wide report are found in column (4). 



. ' '. 









- 41 - 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 




(4) 


Species 


19?7 

3,087 


1958 
2,800 


Duplicated by 
Michigan Dept. 
Conservation 


Usable Totals, 1958 


Canada Goose 


- 




2,800 


Blue Goose 


- 


20 


~ 




20 


Mallard 


4,210 


3,229 


1,070 




2,159 


Black Duck 


3,382 


6,247 


1,371 




4,876 


Wood Duck 


36 


50 


- 




50 


Ring-necked 


1 




- 




- 


Scaup 


21,851 


18,499 


282 




18,217 


Redhead 


159 


- 


- 




- 


Canvasback 


32,715 


27,703 


19,657 




< 8,046 


Goldeneye 


7.310 


12,854 


807 




12,047 


Bufflehead 


76 


617 


- 




617 


Eider 


2 


2 


- 




2 


Harlequin 




2 






2 


Oldsquaw 


5,777 


10,088 


- 




10,088 


Merganser 


2,479 


232 


- 




232 


Coot 


30 


- 


- 




- 


Unidentified 


9,686 
90,801 


7,788 
90,131 


3,924 




3,864 


TOTALS 


27,111 




63,020 



- 42 - 

SUMMARY OF WATERFOWL CONDITIONS IN THE MISSISSIPPI FLYWAY, 

WINTER OF 1957-1953 

by 
Arthur S. Hawkins 

Mississippi Flyway Representative 
U. S. Department of the Interior 



Waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Flyway are slightly 
reduced in numbers as compared to a year ago but still numerically 
stronger than the average for the eight-year period 1950-57. This 
information came to light in a report just released by the U. S. 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. Basis of the report was the 
annual mid-January waterfowl survey which spans the North American 
wintering grounds for waterfowl from Alaska to Central America. 
Object of the survey is to determine the size and distribution of the 
continental waterfowl population. 

In this massive operation, 900 observers took part in the 
Mississippi Flyway states alone which is the portion of the survey 
covered in the above mentioned report. Transportation for this 
small army of trained wildlife specialists included 49 aircraft, 
710 cars, and 36 power boats. About 76,000 miles were traveled 
within the Flyway during the survey which began on January 13 and 
ended ten days later. 

All duck hunters know that the Mississippi Flyway is an 
administrative unit established by the federal government, roughly 
corresponding to the major routes taken by waterfowl during their 
fall migration. This Flyway included the following States; Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. 
Conservation department personnel and the federal Bureau of Sport 
Fisheries and Wildlife work together in conducting the survey, aided 
by aircraft furnished by the Department of Defense. 

Here are some of the facts and figures found in the 
Mississippi Flyway survey report; 

1. Waterfowl of the Flyway probably "never had it so good* as they 
have this winter. Large numbers of mallards and Canada geese still 
waxed fat on South Dakota corn at the time of the inventory. Those 
which had taken the trouble to continue beyond the Dakotas into the 
Mississippi Flyway couldn 9 t believe their eyes. In Arkansas, for 
example, it was reported that there was waterfowl habitat "the 
quality and quantity of which has never been equaled." Similar 
conditions prevailed over much of the southland. The upshot was that 
although several hundred thousand mallards never reached the south, 



• 43 - 

comparable numbers of other kinds of ducks liked what they found in 
the lower Mississippi Valley so well they decided to stay rather than 
continue farther south as usual. 

2. Counting all kinds of waterfowl recorded, the total was S% below 
1957 but 24% above an S-year average (1950-57). 

Total ducks were 11$ below 1957 but 25% above average. 
Total puddle ducks were 9% below 1957 but 28% above average. 
Total diving ducks were 20% below 1957 but 6% above average. 
Total geese were 2% above 1957 but 6% above average. 
Total coots were 57% above 1957 but 53% above average. 

3. The increase in wintering mallards in the Dakotas and Nebraska 
balanced the decrease noted in the mallard population of the Flyway. 
Therefore, the recorded decrease during the inventory did not appear 
significant. 

4. This Flyway has not played host during the winter to so many 
baldpates, gadwalls, blue-winged teal or shovelers for many years, 
apparently the direct result of the unusually fine habitat conditions, 

5. The status of the wood duck, canvasback, ringneck, and goldeneye 
appears somewhat unfavorable and should be watched closely. 

6. For the first time in almost a decade the Mississippi Flyway 
Canada goose population showed a loss. An unusually large take by 
hunters last fall apparently made the difference. 

The report concludes that in general the status of water- 
fowl at the beginning of 195$ appeared favorable. It points out, 
however, that all kinds of waterfowl are not blessed 'equally*. Some 
may need special attention if they are to maintain their numbers. 
The recent survey also points up the importance of waterfowl habitat 
in determining the distribution of the birds. Good habitat and 
healthy waterfowl populations go hand in hand. 









' 






- . • i' - 



. • 



■* -, 
I . 1 I 

• . . • ", ....■• 






"'■■.■' ■:''.' 



■.■•-•■■ ■ ; , 



■ ■ '. :. ; , i 

' : • ' ' '■■" ' . " ' 

'■:•'■-.■■.'■:■• 
..■: . m ... ■ '•: :. ■■■■.■. 



- 44 - 

ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS, MAMMALS, 
AND FISHES OF EXTREME NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO 

by 

J. A. Macfie 



In 1953 » the writer prepared a list of observations result- 
ing from field work in the Hudson Bay Coast region of Ontario during 
1952 and 1953 K . The present observations were made from July 4th to 
August 10th, 1955* during the course of a cooperative waterfowl 
banding project. Many of the observations recorded are those of 
George Arthur of the Illinois Conservation Department, and R. Vaught, 
of the Missouri State Conservation Commission. 

The area covered includes an SO mile strip of coast between 
the Niskibi and Shagamu Rivers, and the Shagamu River and Shell Brook 
for distances of about 25 miles up stream from the coast. 

B irds 

This is not a complete list of birds seen; we had diffi- 
culty identifying small shorebirds, and undoubtedly some other common 
species went unnoticed. 

P acific Loon - Phillip Mathew (Indian Guide) identified a loon seen 
off the Shagamu River mouth as this species. 

Red-throated Loon ( Gavia stellata ) - Commonly seen on Hudson Bay. 

American Bittern ( Botaurus lentiginosus ) - I saw one near the coast 
at Shell Brook. 

Whistling Swan ( Cygnus columbianus ) - We saw two swans at the mouth 
of the Severn River on August 8th. They were probably whistling 
swans. 

Canada Goose ( Branta canadensis ) - See report "Waterfowl Banding, 
Fort Severn, 1955". 

Snow Goose ( Chen hyperborea ) - George Arthur saw two near the mouth 
of Shell Brook on July 4th. 

Mallard ( Anas platyrhyncos ) - George Arthur saw a nest containing 
nine eggs about 10 miles up the Shagamu River on July 10th. On 
July 11th, I saw five males in spring plumage. Mallards were most 
plentiful east of Fort Severn, where they seemed about as common as 
green-winged teal and blacks. 



* See Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 16, April, 1954. 






- 45 - 

Black Duck ( Anas rubripes ) - These were common all along the coast, 
more so west of Fort Severn. No nests, and no broods (with one 
possible exception) were seen. Although flying adults were seen 
frequently, we never found more than a few flightless birds together. 
The first flightless adult was found on July 6th, and the last on 
August 7th. 

P intail ( Anas acuta tzitzihoa ) - This was the most numerous of the 
ducks on the coast west of Fort Severn. We found a brood two-thirds 
grown on July 12th and flightless adults on July 14th. On July 23rd, 
we found an occupied nest on an island 2 miles up Goose Creek. Only 
a few flightless pintails remained on August 8th. 

Green-winged Teal ( Anas carolinensis ) - These were among the most 
common ducks around the Shell Brook mouth. They were somewhat less 
plentiful west of Severn. I saw a two week old brood of nine on 
July 12th, and flightless birds were captured as late as August 7th. 

B aldpate ( Mareca americana ) - We found these in relatively small 
numbers all along the coast. 

Lesser Scaup ( Ay thy a af finis ) - I saw a pair (able to fly) on a 
coastal pond near Shell Brook on July 14th. Undoubtedly many of 
the ducks seen in the distance on the Bay were scaups. 

Common Eider ( Somateria mollissima ) - This duck was seen near the 
Shagamu River. 

White-winged Scoter ( Melanitta deglandi ) - These were seen frequently 
as we travelled on the Bay. On July 30th, we passed through a group 
of 100 or more flightless birds at sea. 

American Scoter (Oidemia nigra ) - These were also common off the 
coast. 

Hooded Merganser ( Lophodytes cucullatus ) - George Arthur saw what 
he believed to be a hooded merganser on a beaver pond off the Shagamu 
River. Phillip Mathew called it "amisk-asip ss , or beaver duck, and 
identified it in Peterson 9 s Field Guide as this species. 

American Merganser ( Mergus merganser americanus ) - I saw a female 
with nine downy young on Shell Brook on July 8th. On July 23rd, a 
similar group was seen on Goose Creek. 

Red-breasted Merganser ( Mergus serrator ) - On July 9th, I found a 
nest 23 miles up Shell Brook. It was located among small balsam 
poplar, 12 feet from the river. Probably the many mergansers seen 
on the Bay were of this species. We passed a group of two dozen or 
more flightless mergansers at sea on July 4th. 

American Rough-legged Hawk ( Buteo lagopus ) - I saw one of these at 
its nest in a large spruce tree, 15 miles up Shell Brook. 



' ■ 



- 46 - 

B ald Eagle ( Haliaeetu s leucocephalus ) - Arthur saw one at the Shagarau 
River. 

Marsh Hawk ( Circus cyaneus hudsonius h - These were common on the 
coastal plain. 

Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus carolinensis ) - Arthur saw one at the 
Shagamu River. 

Ruffed Grouse ( Bonasa umbellus ) - R. Vaught saw a flock of these on 
the Shagamu River, near the only grove of trembling aspen encountered 
on the River. 

Willow Ptarmigan ( Lagopus lagopus ) - We saw 20, apparently all adults, 
as follows? 2 at Treeline on Shell Brook, 3 at treeline on Goose 
Creek, 15 on the tundra at Niskibi River. 

Sandhill Crane ( Grus canadensis ) - George Arthur saw one flying over 
the camp 25 miles up the Shagamu River. Philip Mathew said he had 
seen sandhill cranes only once or twice before, but his home ground 
is west of Fort Severn. 

Semipalmated Plover ( Charadrius hiaticula ) - Commonly seen on the 
coast. 

Ruddy Turnstone ( Arenaria interpres ) - George Arthur saw this bird 
at the Niskibi River. 

Wilson 9 s Snipe ( Capella gallinago delicata ) - During the period 
July 11th to 19th, I frequently saw these birds and heard their 
whistling on the tundra at Shell Brook. 

Hudsonian Curlew ( Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus ) - I saw a dozen or 
so near treeline at Shell Brook about July 15th. They acted as if 
they had young hidden in the tundra. 

Spotted Sandpiper ( Actitis macularia ) - Commonly seen on the rivers 
above treeline. On July 11th, I saw a pair with two young which 
were almost able to fly. 

G reater Yellowlegs ( Totanus melanoleucus ) - Commonly seen. 

Lesser Yellowlegs ( Totanus flavipes ) - Commonly seen. 

R ed-backed Sandpiper ( Erolia alpina ) - We identified some of these 
at Shell Brook. 

Dowitcher ( Limnodromus griseus ) - Commonly seen on the tidal flats. 

Semipalmated Sandpiper ( Ereunetes pusillus ) - These were seen in 
flocks of up to 1000 birds along the coast at Shell Brook. 

Hudsonian Godwit ( Limosa haemastica ) - We identified a few of these 
at Shell Brook, and a flock of 50 northwest of Fort Severn. Undoub- 
tedly we saw many more than these. 



- 47 - 

Northern Phalarope ( Lobipes lobatus) - Commonly seen on coastal ponds. 

Jaeger (Sp.) - We saw one jaeger 25 miles northwest of Fort Severn, 
and three more two miles west of Niskibi River* 

Herring Gull (Larus argentatus ) - Commonly seen. 

Arctic Tern ( Sterna paradisaea ) - About 25 pairs had nested on an 
Island in Goose Creek at treeline. On July 23rd, the young terns 
were partially feathered and took to the water when we approached. 
We placed #4 leg bands on 18 of the young. 

C aspian Tern ( Hydroprogne caspia ) - One of these was shot by an 
Indian at the mouth of the Severn River while we were at Fort Severn. 
It is now in the Royal Ontario Museum, 

Great Horned Owl ( Bubo virginianus ) - We saw one on Goose Creek, and 
a family group on the Shagamu River. 

Snowy Owl ( Nyctea scandiaca ) - We saw one on the coast near the 
Niskibi River. Two flightless adult pintails, with flesh torn from 
their backs but still alive, were said by Phillip Mathew to have been 
victims of Snowy Owls. 

Short-eared Owl ( Asio flammeus flammeus ) - These were seen occasional- 
ly on the coastal tundra. 

American Three-toed Woodpecker ( Picoides tridactylus ) - I saw one 
on Shell Brook. 

Horned Lark ( Eremophila alpestris ) - On July 5th, on a sandy beach 
ridge near Shell Brook, I saw a horned lark that appeared to have a 
nest, or young nearby. 

Canada Jay ( Perisoreus canadensis ) - We saw a few of them in the 
forest. 

Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ) - I saw one at treeline on Shell Brook. 

Robin ( Turdus migratorius ) - I saw one at treeline on Shell Brook. 

Rusty Blackbird ( Euphagus carolinus ) - About two dozen of these were 
observed in the muskeg 24 miles up Shell Brook. 

S late-colored Junco ( Junco hyemalis ) - I saw some 25 miles up Shell 
Brook. 

White-crowned Sparrow ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) - Seen at Shell Brook. 

White-throated Sparrow ( Zonotrichia albicollis ) - Commonly seen and 
heard. 

Song Sparrow ( Melospiza melodia ) - Seen at Shell Brook. 






■ . , 



- 48 - 

Mammals 

B lack Bear ( Ursus arnericanus ) - I saw tracks of one along Shell 
Brook, The head of an adult black bear, probably killed in the 
spring, was noted among the remains of an Indian camp at the mouth 
of the Niskibi River. 

Polar Bear ( Thalarctos maritimus ) - We observed nine polar bears, as 

follows; 

Shell Brook mouth s July 15th - 1 adult and 2 cubs 

July l§th - 1 lone adult 
July 21st - 1 lone adult 

Vicinity Niskibi River mouth ; August 2nd - 1 lone adult 

August 6th - 1 lone adult 
August 8th - 1 lone adult 

Half way between Severn & Niskibi Rivers ; Aug. 8th - 1 lone 

adult 

An old polar bear skull found near the Niskibi River has been placed 
in the Royal Ontario Museum. 

Mink ( Mustella vison ) - We saw one mink on the Shagamu River, one 
dead mink floating in Goose Creek, and a single fresh mink track on 
Shell Brook. 

Wolverine (Gulo luscus ) - An old skull, found in the eroding river 
bank at Fort Severn, has been placed in the Royal Ontario Museum. 

Otter ( Lutra canadensis ) - Four were seen, three on the Shagamu 
River and one on Shell Brook. 

Red fox ( Vulpes fulva ) - We saw three of these. Fox dens were common 
on the beach ridges but we were unable to distinguish red fox from 
arctic fox dens. One den overlooked a pond where flightless ducks 
were concentrating. Feathers scattered about the den showed the 
foxes had killed a good many ducks. 

Arctic Fox ( Alopex lagopus ) - We saw about eight of these on the 
coastal tundra. Included were an adult and two pups, and a lone 
nearly grown pup seen on August 7th. 

Timber Wolf ( Canis lupus ) - I saw the tracks of a single large wolf 
on upper Shell Brook. 

Bearded Seal ( Erignathus barbatus ) - We saw about a dozen at sea and 
in the Severn River. The Indians at Fort Severn had shot about six 
up until August 10th. Carcasses of three young and one adult were 
found washed at separate points along the coast. The skull of one 
young seal has been placed in the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. 

Woodchuck ( Marmot a monax ) - Woodchuck holes were noted in the stream 
bank on Shell Brook. 






- 49 - 

Beaver ( Castor canadensis ) - There were five occupied beaver houses 
on Shell Brook between treeline and 27 miles upstream. Arthur saw 
one house on the Shagamu River and one in a nearby muskeg pond. Two 
beaver were seen on Shell Brook and two on the Shagamu River. A 
fresh cutting was seen just above treeline on Goose Creek. Beaver 
seemed plentiful on Shell Brook. Small groves of balsam poplar were 
being fully utilized. Willow, however, was more plentiful and 
appeared to be the main food species for beaver. This type of river 
presents few suitable sites for beaver houses. It should be noted 
that the holder of this trap-line has not trapped for three years, but 
other Weenusk Indians were licensed to trap there last winter, and a 
beaver set was noted on a dam near a now unoccupied house. 

Ungava Phenacomys ( Phenacomys ungava ) - One skull, found on a beach 
ridge near the mouth of Shell Brook, has been placed in the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology. 

Boreal Redback Vole ( Clethrionomys gapperi ) - One skin and skull, 
obtained at treeline on Shell Brook, has been placed in the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology 

Meadow Vole ( Microtus pennsylvanicus ) - These were frequently seen 
on the tundra. One skin and skull from Shell Brook has been placed 
in the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. 

Muskrat ( Ondatra zibethica ) - We saw about six, in the rivers and 
coastal ponds. 

Woodland Caribou ( Rangifer caribou ) - George Arthur saw a single 
caribou, probably a yearling, and tracks of several others on the 
Shagamu River. Elsewhere we saw caribou tracks as follows l 

Shell Brook - 2 adult 

- 1 adult and 1 yearling 

- several older tracks 

Tidal flats near Niskibi River - 2 adult 

A fragment of caribou jawbone from Niskibi River has been placed in 
the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. 

White Whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) - Two carcasses were found washed 
up on the beach near Shell Brook. An incomplete skelton has been 
placed in the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. 

Fish 

The Shagamu and Niskibi Rivers, Shell Brook and Goose Creek 
all provided good Speckled Trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) fishing, 
yielding fish weighing up to five pounds. The Shagamu River and Shall 
Brook also produced some Northern Pike ( Esox lucius ) . 

Whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) weighing up to one pound were 
taken in nets in the Shagamu and the Niskibi Rivers. 

A number of scale samples and measurements were taken of 
the above species. 



; 



; j 



- 50 - 

sex ratios of the western region deer herd 

by 
R. Boultbee 



From 1951 to 1956 inclusive a Big Game Check Station has 
been operated in the Western Region. Deer have been Classified by- 
age and sex. This study uses the sex records to draw conclusions 
about the sex ratios of the deer herd. Only the data from 1953 to 
1956 inclusive are used. Sex ratios by age classes are also investi- 
gated. 



Table one summarizes the deer checked in the four years. 



TABLE I 



Check 
Year 

1953 
1954 
1955 

1956 


Males 
Checked 

282 
188 
478 
223 


Females 
Checked 

268 
192 
376 
222 


Total 
Checked 

550 
380 
854 
445 


Proportion 

of Males 

0.513 
0.495 
O.56O 
0.501 


Totals 


1171 


1058 


2229 


0.525 



A short examination of the proportion of males, i.e. the 
sex ratios, leads to the thought that the herd is essentially evenly 
divided between the two sexes. The ratios for 1953, 1954 and 1956 
are so close to 0.500 as to leave little doubt. The ratio of O.56O 
for 1955 must reflect a significant variation from the others, though 
the departure from 0.500 is not too disturbing to our sense of pro- 
portion. 

If binomial significance tests are made assuming that all 
sex ratios are samples from a population with sex ratio 0.500 it 
will be found that all fall well within the ninety-five percent 
confidence limits except the ratio for 1955. The latter is signifi- 
cantly different from 0.500 at well beyond the five percent level 
and it is safe to conclude that some influence other than chance 
caused it to vary. 



classes. 



Table two presents the same totals broken down by age 



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- 52 - 

The two figures in a single cell represent male and female 
counts from left to right and top to bottom. In the second to last 
row the totals are expressed as sex ratios (proportions of males). 
Below that line is shown the significance of each ratio's departure 
from 0.500. An interesting pattern is seens the two youngest age 
classes are significantly high in males; the three next age classes 
are essentially evenly divided between the two sexes ; the older age 
classes are significantly low in males (high in females). 

The question arises, could the age class pattern of sex 
ratios have been caused by the abnormal effect of the 1955 count? 
If the 1955 animals had been excluded from table two the last two 
lines would have been 

Sex Ratios 

0.532 0.619 0.449 0.527 0.463 0.256 0.312 0.036 0.333 0.504 

Significance 
none h none none none m none m none none 

Thus it is seen that the age class differentiation of the 
sex ratios is present in ordinary years, although the effect is not 
as strong as before. The 1.5 year age class ratio of 0.619 is a 
departure from 0.500 that could have happened by mere chance less 
than one time in twenty thousand. Such odds make us conclude that 
this sex ratio was raised by some influence other than chance. 

The age class differentiation can be seen in individual 
year checks, but is more easily proved statistically by combining the 
data of two or more years. 

We must give thought to the way the data were gathered. 
They are hunting data only, and anything they tell about the unharves- 
ted herd must be inferred. Two points seem possibles first, young 
males may get around more and present more frequent targets, and second, 
hunter preference may be at work. The harvest of Western Region deer 
is considered to be low and hence the effect of the hunt on the sex 
ratio of the herd is probably also low. The only reasonable assumption 
we can make about the herd is that it is essentially evenly divided 
between males and females. 

The writer is not sure what fascination sex ratios have for 
Biologists, but it does give us a better picture of the herd to know 
that the task of recruitment is carried on by half the herd's members. 
This information should simplify studies of birth rates and allied 
subjects. 



. 






• 



' 






- 53 - 

SURVIVAL RATES, APPARENT AND ACTUAL 
OF THE 
WESTERN REGION DEER HERD 

by 
R. Boultbee 



The Western Region of the Ontario Department of Lands and 
Forests has operated a deer check station in hunt season for six 
years. The results are given in table one in percentage form. 

TABLE I - Game Check Percentages 



Check 
Year 






Age 


C 1 


ass 


e s 










1.5 


2.5 


3.5 


4.5 


5.5 


6.5 


7.5 


3.5 


9.5 


Total 


1951 


21.4 


15.5 


25.7 


13.9 


9.2 


6.3 


1.0 


1.0 


0.5 


100.0 


1952 


32.6 


15.3 


11.5 


15.9 


3.9 


5.7 


5.7 


2.5 


1.9 


100.0 


1953 


37.4 


30.1 


16.4 


7.5 


3.4 


2.7 


2.3 


0.2 


0.0 


100.0 


1954 


23.5 


37.3 


I6c6 


5.5 


3.9 


4.4 


3.1 


0.3 


0.0 


100.0 


1955 


28.3 


29.6 


21. a 


10.1 


3.7 


2.6 


2.6 


1.3 


0.0 


100.0 


1956 


22.2 


21.2 


31.2 
123.2 


15.7 
73.5 


4.6 
33.7 


1.9 

24.1 


2.4 
17.1 


0.3 
6.6 


0.0 
2.4 


100.0 


Total 


170.4 


149.0 


600.0 


Average 


23.5 


24.9 


20.5 


12.2 


5.6 


4.0 


2.3 


1.1 


0.4 





The line of averages represents a fairly steady set of 
proportions about which the annual hunt data fluctuate. It is pro- 
bable however that hunt data for a lightly hunted herd are not typical 
of the herd. We can estimate the true proportions of the herd by 
drawing a freehand curve through groups of averaged age classes. 
This is a subjective way to estimate true herd proportions but it is 
difficult to find a better. 

The bottom two lines of table one can be grouped to yield 
the following valuess 



Age Class Groups 



Average Age 
Average Percentage 



1.5 to 3.5 

2.39 

24.59 



4. 5 to 6.5 

5.12 
7.29 



7.5 to 9.5 

7.94 
1.45 



These points are plotted freehand in figure one. The 

dotted line is the same curve reduced to percentages, including 

fawns. The age class percentages read off the dotted line are as 
follows : 



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. 



- 55 - 



TABLE 2 - True Herd Proportions 



Age Class 


Percentages 


0.5 


35.1 


1.5 


23.6 


2.5 


15.9 


3.5 


10.2 


4.5 


6.6 


5.5 


4,0 


6,5 


2.5 


7.5 


1.4 


3.5 


0.7 


9.5 


0.0 


Totals 


100.0 



Percentages, Fawns Excluded 



36.4 
24.5 
15.7 
10.2 
6.2 

3.3 

2.1 

1.1 
0.0 

100.0 



The true herd proportions of table two are an average about 
which the herd fluctuates and to which it tends to return. This 
statement implies a static situation, and such is the case with 
proportions but not with numbers. A previous study using hunting 
data (See the Department's Fish and Wildlife Management Report, 
number 36, page 11) calculated that a representative herd of one 
hundred deer in 1951 increased to 140.7 in 1956. This is an increase 
of 7.1 percent per year compounded. Table two must therefore provide 
for an increasing recruitment. Under static conditions recruitment 
and mortality exactly offset each other. Since the herd actually 
increased from 1951 to 1956 table two must show an inflated mortality 
rate. 

As an example of what is meant we can note in table two 
that 15.9 deer aged 2.5 are reduced to 10.2 deer a year later, an 
apparent mortality of 5»7« However since the herd is increasing at 
7.1 percent we know that 5.7 is 107.1 percent of the actual mortality, 
The actual mortality of the 2.5 year age class is therefore 5.7/1.071 
which is 5.3. Expressed as survival the number is 15.9 minus 5.3 
which is 10.6, and the actual survival rate is 10.6/15.9 = 0.667. 
The apparent survival rate was 10.2/15.9 ■ 0.642. The few data 
available do not justify three places of decimals. The apparent 
survival rate can be rounded off at 0.6 and the actual survival rate 
at 0.7. 

If a full set of actual survival rates for all age classes 
could be obtained we would be able to construct a population table 
similar to table two but based on actual, not apparent, survival. 
Such a table would show what happens to a herd, with the inflation 
of increasing recruitment removed. The true herd could be compared 
to such a table to study trends. Since the table would be a standard 
measurement we could call it a ? normal population table.' 

It may at first be thought that the normal herd is an 
unrealistic concept, since the inflation of increasing recruitment 
is in fact present. However the normal herd is itself as factual as 
the inflated herd. If we note that a year class of fawns is subjec- 
ted to actual mortality until it finally passes out of the herd we 
realize that the normal herd is the summation of year class data , 



- 56 - 

and the inflated herd is the summation of age class data such as is 
made by the annual check station. 

The purpose of this paper is to reassemble the check 
station data to obtain year class readings and hence the normal 
population. 

The first step is to convert the hunting data of table 
one to the true herd shape, based on the third column of table two. 
Thus the deer aged 1.5 years in table one have an average value of 
28.5. We wish to raise the average to 36.4 as in table two, a rise 
of 7.9. We do this by adding 7.9 to each figure in the 1.5 year 
column of table one. Each age class is treated similarly and table 
three is the result. The line of averages corresponds to column 
three, table two. 

TABLE 3 - Hunting Data Converted to True Herd Proportions 



Check 
Year 






Age 


C 1 


ass 


e s 










1.5 


2.5 


1*5 


4.5 • 


5.5 


6.? 


7.5 


3.5 


9-5 


Totals 


1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 


29.3 
40.5 
45.3 
36.4 
36.2 
30.1 


15.1 
14.9 
29.7 
36.9 
29.2 
20.8 


20,9 
6.7 
11.6 
11.8 
17.0 
26.4 


16.9 

13.9 

5.5 

3.4 

8.1 

13.7 


9.8 
9.5 
4.0 
4.5 
4.3 
5.2 


6.6 
5.5 
2.5 
4.2 

2.4 
1.7 


0.3 
5.0 
1.6 
2.4 
1.9 
1.7 


1.0 

2.5 
0.2 
0.8 

1.3 
0.8 

6.6 


0.1 

1.5 

-0.4 

-0.4 
-0.4 
-0.4 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


Totals 


217.8 


146.6 


94.4 


61.5 


37.3 


22.9 


12.9 


0.0 


600.0 


Averages 


36.4 


24.5 


15.7 


10.2 


6.2 


3.8 


2.1 


1.1 


0.0 





Table three is still not suitable for year class readings 
since the figures are percentages and have moved up or down according 
to the influence of their neighbours. We must form an hypothesis that 
will permit us to change table three to absolute numbers. If neces- 
sary we can revise our hypothesis till we go as far as our data per- 
mit. 

A previous study (Fish and Wildlife Management Report 
number 36, page 28) shows that deer have their best and most stable 
survival from age 2.5 to age 3.5. The only estimate we have of 
this survival is the rate of 0.7 obtained earlier. This is our 
hypothesis. 

Let us say that the line for 1951 in table three is a 
representative herd of one hundred deer, and the figures therefore 
actual counts rather than proportions. There are 15.1 animals aged 
2.5. Our hypothesis says that these will result in (15.1) (0.7) = 
10.6 survivors in 1952. In the 1952 line of table three we note 
that 3.5 year animals occupy 6.7 percent of the herd, but in the new 
table we substitute 10.6 as an absolute count. To complete the new 
1952 line we multiply each remaining number in the 1952 line of 
table three by the factor 10.6/6.7. The process is repeated till we 
obtain table four. 



: • 



...... 



•■ 



, 






- 57 - 



TABLE 4 - Absolute Herd Numbers (1951 = 100) 



Check 
Year 

1951 
1952 

1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 



JUL 



Class 



e s 



1.5 

29.3 
64.I 
64.3 
91.0 

137.3 

88.5 



2.5 

15.1 
23.6 
42.2 
92.2 
110.8 
61.2 



lil *-5 _L-.i 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 



20.9 
10.6 
16.5 
29.5 
64.5 
77.6 



16.9 


9.8 


22.0 


15.0 


7.8 


5.7 


8.5 


11.2 


30.7 


16.3 


40.3 


15.3 



6.6 
8.7 
3.6 

10.5 
9.1 

5.0 



0.3 
7.9 
2.3 
6.0 
7.2 
5.0 



1.0 
4.0 

0.3 
2.0 
4,9 
2.4 



0.1 
2.4 
■0.6 
•1.0 
•1.5 
•1.2 



Absolute 
Totals 

100.0 
158.3 
142.1 
249.9 
379.3 
294.1 



We can now find actual survival rates from year classes 
by taking ratios diagonally. Several inconsistencies can be seen 
such as 91.0 deer aged 1.5 years in 1954 becoming 110.8 deer a year 
later, but by averaging them with the others we obtain acceptable 
results. The averaging process is performed by grouping the animals 
concerned. For instance deer aged 1.5 years from 1951 to 1955 total 
386.0, and one year later (1952 to 1956) they total 330.0. This 
means a survival rate of 330.0/386.0 = 0.855. This is repeated for 
each pair of age classes to obtain the first line of table five. 

TABLE 5 - Actual Survival Rates 

Age Classes 



0^1 



1.5 



2.5 



3.5 4.5 



5.5 



6.5 



7.5 



2^5 



Rough 

Averages 

Smoothed 

Averages 0.760 0.771 0.775 O.769 0.740 0.698 0.639 0.538 0.000 



0.855 0.700 0.770 0.739 0.636 0.738 0.574 -0.156 



The rough ratios of table five are graphed in figure two 
and a free hand curve is shown from which the smoothed values were 
read. 

If we wished we could use the smoothed 2.5 year survival 

rate of 0.775 as a second hypothesis. If we did we would obtain a 

new value of about 0.800. Such a small difference has no significance 

in view of the few data, and the writer prefers to accept the smoothed 
values of table five. 



Table six gives the normal population obtained from the 
smoothed survival rates of table five. 



- 5$ - 



FIGURE 2 - Actual Survival Rates 



1.0 - 

0.9 
0.8 

0.7 
0.6 



R 
a 
t 
e 

? 0.5 

S n 
u 0.4 

r 

v 

I 0.3 

v 
a 



0.2 - 



0.1 



0.0 



-0.1 



-0.2 




Age 
J L 



0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 



- 59 - 



TABLE 6 - The Normal Population (Based on Actual Survival Rates) 

Percentages, Fawns Excluded 



Age Class 


Percentages 


0.5 


26.6 


1.5 


20.2 


2.5 


15.6 


3.5 


12.1 


4.5 


9.3 


5.5 


6.8 


6.5 


4.8 


7.5 


3.0 


8.5 


1.6 


9.5 


0.0 


Totals 


100.0 



27.5 
21.2 

16.4 
12.6 

9.3 
6.5 
4.2 

2.3 

0.0 



100.0 



It is interesting to use the actual survival rates to 
calculate the rate of increase of the herd. This is done in table 
seven. 

TABLE 7 - Increase in Numbers in One Year 











Survivors After 


Age Class 


True Herd 
35.1 


Actual 


Survival Rates 
0.760 


One Year 


0.5 


40.6 


1.5 


23.6 




0.771 


26.7 


2.5 


15.9 




0.775 


18.2 


3.5 


10.2 




0.769 


12.3 


4.5 


6.6 




0.740 


7.8 


5.5 


4.0 




0.698 


4.9 


6.5 


2.5 




0.639 


2.8 


7.5 


1.4 




0.538 


1.6 


8.5 


0.7 




0.000 


0.8 


9.5 


0.0 






0.0 




100.0 






115.7 



In table seven the 
the true herd of table two. 
in the next older age class, 
survive they will be 26.7 in 
age 1.5. The figure of 40.6 
survivors after one year and 
35*1 per 64.9 adults. In on 
members to 115.7, and increa 



actual survival rates are applied to 
The survivors one year later are placed 

For instance if 0.760 of 35.1 fawns 
number. This number is found opposite 
fawns was determined by adding the 
allotting them fawns at the rate of 

e year the herd increases from 100 

se of roughly 15 percent. 



A compound rate of increase of 15 percent per year means 
that the herd will double its numbers in five years. This statement 
should not be taken too literally. Six years 9 data are too few to 
reach a solid conclusion. Also the data do not include a full range 
of conditions, such as two or more severe winters in succession, or 
a population crash due to lack of food. Time will add these data if 
they are characteristic of the herd's environment. 



- 60 - 

The normal herd can be considered as being in the state 
that just meets the demands of the Western Region deer environment. 
The additional potential of the true herd would thus represent the 
margin by which the herd exceeds the requirements of its environment, 
and with which it increases its numbers. 

Future refinements of the actual survival rates seem pro- 
bable as more data are accumulated. In time we will probably be 
able to show actual survival rates for all ages, after favourable 
seaons, after severe seasons, after two or more severe seasons in 
succession, and so on. 






- 61 - 

LIVE TRAPPING OF FISHER IN ALGONQUIN PARK, 

WINTER OF 1957 

by 
M. G. Loucks 



I wish to acknowledge with thanks the valuable assistance 
and co-operation rendered by Mr, Rod Stanfield, and his staff of 
Nick Yaskovitch, John White, and Tom Catachee, who devoted a con- 
siderable amount of their time towards making this project a success 
and also the men from Pembroke District. 

The Air Service Division Pilots, George Cambell, Ralph 
Stone, Louie Poulin, Boyd Smith, and their respective engineers 
deserve a lot of credit and thanks for their co-operation and co- 
ordinated effort in transporting the animals to their destination. 

To the Conservation Officers of Parry Sound District I 
extend special thanks for their co-operation, enthusiasm, and 
interest shown, and also for the extra time they cheerfully contri- 
buted in carrying out this work, Without their wholehearted coopera- 
tion and volunteered labour the live trapping project could not 
possibly have been undertaken. 

The project was first suggested by Maple to see if it was 
feasible to be carried out. The original plan suggested was a joint 
effort between the two Districts, Pembroke and Parry Sound. At a 
meeting of the Fish and Wildlife staff in Parry Sound District the 
project was suggested to them. Needless to say they were quite 
interested and volunteered to undertake the extra work. The Fish 
and Wildlife staff of Pembroke District were contacted and agreed 
to help* 

It was decided at the beginning that if we expected to 
accomplish any results a large area would have to be trapped, since 
fisher travel quite freely and do not tend to congregate in small 
areas. To do this type of travelling the trap line would have to be 
along an open road or highway. This was the main reason for picking 
the main highway through Algonquin Park,. a distance of 36 miles with 
two travelled side roads and approximately 10 miles in the centre 
where no trapping was done. It was further decided to pre-bait 
along this route in an effort to assess the population from the 
tracks at the baits and to see if the number of animals attracted 
would warrant starting the project, also to entice them to areas 
close to the highway so that they might be trapped more easily. 

Baits consisting of whole beaver, and wolf carcasses and 
large portions of deer meat, were placed at likely looking spots 
picked at random along the highway. Before this had progressed very 
far, it was decided that since the men engaged in this work would 
be changing every week the new men would experience difficulty in 
finding the baits. They were then placed at each mileage post or 
close to it regardless of forest cover type. The traps on the side 



- 62 - 

road were indicated by red rags or blue tags. Although an effort 
was made to pick cover of a sort on one side of the highway, which 
ever was best suited. 

Some carcasses were wired or fastened in trees, five or 
six ft. from the snowj others were thrown under evergreen trees. 
It was found that hanging the bait in trees produced the best results, 
since foxes and wolves could not get at them and drag them away or 
eat them. A number of carcasses were either completely eaten or 
taken away when they were placed on the ground, and due to a fresh 
fall of snow, it was impossible to tell whether fisher had visited 
this bait station or not. Approximately fourteen of these baits 
were employed at first, more could have been put out, but at the 
time none was available. The baiting was carried on for a period 
of approximately three weeks with ground baits being renewed once 
during this period. During the first week of the baiting period, 
the baits were inspected once a week. The inspection of the baits 
should be after two or three days of clear weather or just before 
a snow storm. Fisher tracks showing around the baits were quite 
numerous, hence we decided that trapping could be carried out 
successfully. 

Trapping was started on the 8th of Feb., with seven traps 
being set. The next day the setting was completed with a total of 
32 traps being set. Sixteen of these were the larger size (9-i x 9s 
x 32) (all that were available) with the remainder being the smaller 
marten type (6J x 6J x 24). Two traps were placed at each bait (one 
of each size) with one or two baits, and where a large number of 
fisher tracks were noted three traps were set. Traps were set in 
the conventional manner with the rear end against a tree or stump 
or in a hollow log after having first blocked the rear end. Some 
were also set alongside of a log, whichever was convenient. 

The best set, we believe, was where the bait could be put 
in a hole beneath the large trap, then the trap covered with dead 
wood and evergreen brush. It was also found that fisher and marten 
could be taken with the bait still hanging in a tree nearby. At 
the beginning, different scents were used on half of the traps, the 
other half were baited with a different meat. The meat was tied 
to the roof of the inside of the trap at the rear, with the scent 
being placed at the back. It is interesting to note that all sets 
took fisher, but a preference was shown to beaver meat as bait, and 
the scent being a mixture of oil of anise, oil of rodium (equal parts) 
and muskrat scent glands. The folding rear end of all traps was 
reinforced with baling or hay wire, as it was decided at the beginning 
that the clips were not sufficient to hold these animals. This extra 
precaution probably accounted for no losses in trapped animals. 
When the traps are set, after making certain that there is sufficient 
brush underneath to keep drifting snow from freezing the pan, they 
should be sprung. Through the front entrance use a light stick or 
even your hand and press the pan until the trap is sprung, then 
withdraw your hand or stick and check to see if the door falls 
into place unhindered. Some misses were encountered by traps having 
been bent sideways with heavy wood and brush on the top ° 9 this will 
not allow the door to close properly. The same test can be made by 
Shoving a stick down through the top of the trap and springing it. 



- 63 - 

The traps should be visited every day, with a holding pen 
or two carried in the truck or car to transport the trapped animal 
back to the main camp. The animals fight the trap quite vigorously 
while being transported, and may break their teeth if a holding pen 
is not available. Care should be exercised in the transfer of the 
animal from the trap to the holding pen to see that all avenues of 
escape are blocked, especially with the smaller type trap, which 
when placed in the entrance of the holding pen has several inches 
on each side through which the animal can escape. A piece of ply- 
wood, cut in the shape of a "T" Square to block this, is quite handy. 

When the animals have been brought to the camp they should 
be given food and water, with a liberal amount of hay or straw 
being placed in the holding pen beforehand. It was found that 
feeding and watering once a day was sufficient, either in the after- 
noon or evening. The fisher, unlike the marten, did not eat during 
the day time. The animals were changed to a clean pen every two 
days, with the fisher being by far the cleaner animal. 

Sexing, aging and tagging the fisher was done with the 
use of a cone made of inch chicken wire and fastened to the end of 
the trap, which had the end gate wired open or removed. The trap 
was set and placed into the entrance of the holding pen, with all 
escape routes being blocked. A potato bag or a coat should be 
placed over the trap and cone, leaving the end of the cone open to 
light. The fisher can then be chased into the cone by blowing 
vigorously at the cracks in the rear of the holding pen, and if this 
fails, by blowing smoke into these cracks and prodding the animal 
with a stiff wire. These methods were successful in tagging all 
fisher that were trapped in the project. After the animal is tagged 
in the left ear, and tattooed in the right, blowing in his face will 
make him retreat quite easily back into the holding pen. During 
this operation, a clean pen can be substituted if necessary. 

The trapping was carried on from Feb. 9th., when all traps 
were set, to March 25th when all traps were lifted. During this 
period of 44 trapping nights a total of 29 fisher (16 F, 13 M) and 
10 marten (2 F, 8 M) were caught. In this period of time there 
were two nights when the traps were not in full operation" first, 
because there were no holding pens available" second, because 
trapping had lagged and the trappers decided to boil and wax all the 
traps, removing blood and decaying meat from them. 

From our experience it is believed that the live trapping 
of fisher can be successfully carried out in an area where travel 
is permitted by motor vehicle, and the area has a good population 
of these animals. We are also of the opinion that pre-baiting 
contributed a major part towards the success of this project. 



- 64 - 

The approximate cost of the operation was as follows; 

Conservation Officers wages $727.50 (not charged to project) 
Man hired by Pembroke for 24 days 202.80 
Meals for all men engaged in 

project 301.50 

Mileage for private cars on the 

project 242.50 

Hay, feed, express, waxing and 

boiling traps, etc. 32.57 

Gasoline for sedan deliveries and 

trucks on project 80.04 (not charged to project) 

TOTAL COST OF PROJECT $1586.91 



- 65 - 



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- 67 - 

A CREEL CENSUS OF THE BLACK STURGEON AREA, 

. 1957. 

by 
C. A. Rettie 



The Black Sturgeon Area was opened to travel in the summer 
of 1956 for the first time since the summer of 1943. During this 
summer a study of the fishing pressure etc., in this area was made 
by R. A. Ryder, District Biologist, PORT ARTHUR and presented in 
his report "A Creel Census of The Black Sturgeon Area - 1956". 
During the summer of 1957 the area was again open to travel. The 
following Creel Census is a continuation of the study commenced by 
Mr. Ryder. Therefore, I would like to refer you to his paper for a 
complete history of this particular area, objectives of this survey 
and methods used. The only variation from 1956 was in the style of 
Creel Card used. 

During the winter of 1956-57, a few fishermen entered this 
area for the purpose of ice fishing, mostly to Shillabeer Lake for 
pike. Following the spring break-up and for the purpose of this 
study, the first person entering this area for the purpose of angling 
did so on May 16. For a period of 3 days during the summer sports- 
men were refused admittance because of the high fire hazard. However, 
those fishermen already in the area were not required to leave and 
could continue with their sport. Because of a few acts of vandalism 
at Camp 3* the road to Nonwatin Lake was closed for the period of 
the river drive. This shows up and accounts for the small number of 
people fishing Nonwatin Lake. The survey terminated on September 
30, but a few anglers (147) continued entering the area until freeze 
up. On December 15, the first party of ice fishermen returned to 
Shillabeer Lake. 

Two thousand and fifty-one angling parties passed through 
the gates at the Great Lakes during the period from May 16 to 
September 30 inclusive. Each party received a Lands and Forests 
Travel Permit and a Creel Card to be completed for each day*s fishing. 
This involved a great deal of extra work on the part of the Company 
gatemen. Of this total, one hundred and seventy-four creel cards 
were returned incompletely filled in some respect such as the name 
of the water fished etc., and were of no use for this study. This 
left a total of one thousand, eight hundred and seventy-seven angling 
parties reporting on a total of twenty-two waters (16 lakes and 6 
streams). Of these, 5 waters including Lake Nipigon were omitted 
from this survey as being outside the actual Great Lakes Concession. 
All other waters were tabulated only if fifty or more anglers had 
fished them during the census period from May 16 to September 30. 
This deleted the few trout lakes and streams and left 10 waters (7 
lakes and 3 streams) which include the seven waters used last year 
plus three new ones. 

All these waters have as their main populations pickerel 
and/or pike, with other species present only to a much smaller extent 
and considered taken only incidentally to the pickerel and pike. 



- 6d - 



Results of Census: 



A total of 3964 anglers fished 23923 hours on the 10 waters 
selected for computation. They captured 64$7 pickerel, 12704 pike, 
32 lake trout, 94 speckled trout, 4 whitefish, 75 perch, 2 sturgeon, 
64 smallmouth bass, 8 saugers, 13 suckers and 1 carp. 

The lake trout were all taken in Disraeli Lake. The 
speckled trout were all taken in Leckie Creek. The one carp reported 
captured was taken below Camp 1 dam on the Black Sturgeon River 
which flows directly into Black Bay of Lake Superior. The catch of 
Pickerel was almost negligible in Shillabeer Lake (7) and Disraeli 
Lake (16). These figures may be erroneous as to my knowledge this 
is the first pickerel reported from either lake. These were previou- 
sly believed to contain no pickerel. 

The following tables have been prepared similar to those 
in Mr. Ryder's report of 1956 for ease in comparison. 

TABLE I - Average Catch Per Angler - Black Sturgeon Area - 1957 x 



Sturge Lake 
Muskrat Lake 
Black Sturgeon L. 
Black Sturgeon R. 
Nonwatin Lake 
Little Sturge L. 
Spruce River 
Shillabeer Lake 
Disraeli Lake 
Leckie Creek 
All Waters 



xFishing 












Pressure 




Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


\% of 


Fishing 


No. of 


Mo. of 


No. of 


No. of 


total 


Hours 


Fish 


Pickerel 


Pike 


Bass 


no. of 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


hours) 


Angler 


Angler 


Angler 


Angler 


Angler 


21$ 


6.6 


7,2 


3.3 


3.9 


<0.1 


16% 


6.2 


5.3 


2.1 


3.2 


<0.1 


12% 


6.3 


5.2 


0.9 


4.3 


<0.1 


8% 


5.0 


2.7 


2.2 


0.5 


<0.1 


1% 


5.5 


2.3 


1.0 


i.a 


- 


16% 


6.0 


4.0 


1.4 


2.6 


<0.1 


6% 


5.3 


2.4 


0.6 


l.a 


<0.1 


6% 


5.6 


7.5 


<0.1 


7.5 


- 


10% 


6.1 


3.6 


<0.1 


3.6 


- 


k$ 


6.2 


3.4 


2.0 


1.4 


- 


100% 


6.0 


4.8 


1.6 


3.2 


<0.1 



* Percentages were rounded off to closest unit of value, therefore 
the total does not necessarily add up to 100%. 

Values less than 0.1 are indicated by<. 

x Each fishing trip counted as a separate entity. 



- 69 - 
TABLE II - Fishing Success - Black Sturgeon Area - 1957 3 



Sturge Lake 
Muskrat Lake 
Black Sturgeon L. 
Black Sturgeon R. 
Nonwatin Lake 
Little Sturge L. 
Spruce River 
Shillabeer Lake 
Disraeli Lake 
Leckie Creek 
All Waters 



Fish 


Pickerel 


Pike 


Bass 


Per Hour 


Per Hour 


Per Hour 


Per Hour 


1.1 


0,5 


0.6 


<0.1 


0.3 


0.3 


0.5 


<0.1 


0.8 


0.1 


0.7 


<0.1 


0.5 


0.4 


0.1 


<0.1 


0.5 


0.2 


0.3 


- 


0.7 


0.2 


0.4 


<0.1 


0.5 


0.1 


0.3 


<0.1 


1.3 


<0.1 


1.3 


- 


0.6 


<0.1 


0.6 


- 


0.5 


0.3 


0.2 


- 


0,7 


0.2 


0.5 


<0.1 



x Compiled from returns of 3964 anglers who caught a total of 6487 
Pickerel, 12704 Pike and 64 Smallmouth Bass. 

TABLE III - Fishing Success By Month - Black Sturgeon Area - 1957 





^Fishing 
















Pressure 
















i% of 
















total 


Fish 


Pickerel 


Pike 


Fish 


Pickerel 


Pike 




no. of 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




hours) 
5.k% 


Angler 
3.3 


Angler 
0.9 


Angler 
2.9 


Hour 
0.3 


Hour 
0.2 


Hour 


May 


0.6 


June 


33.0% 


5.3 


2.0 


3.3 


0.9 


0.3 


0.6 


July 


32.2$ 


4.3 


1.7 


2.6 


0.7 


0.3 


0.4 


August 


14.1$ 


4.0 


1.2 


2.3 


0.3 


0.2 


0.6 


September 


15.2% 


4.3 


1.2 


3.6 


0.3 


0.2 


0.6 



* Percentages were rounded off to the closest unit in value. 

Therefore the total does not necessarily add up to 100 percent. 



Comparison With the Black Sturgeon Creel Census, 1956 g 

The greatest difference lies in the great increase of 
anglers using this area, resulting in a much higher number of fish 
being taken. An increase of 2316 anglers captured 4199 pickerel and 
9576 pike over the preceding yearns total. 

From Table 1 we see that fishing hours per angler were 
reduced by 0.3 hours while the average number of fish per angler 
increased by 0.1 fish. Anglers caught 0.4 less pickerel each this 
year but made up for this by taking 0.5 more pike. 

This trend continues in Table 2 where it may be seen that 
while the fish caught per hour was similar to 1956, the catch of 
pickerel per hour decreased by 0.1 and the catch of pike increased 
by 0.1 per hour. 



- 70 - 



The greatest fishing pressure was exerted in June followed 
by August. Also more fish per angler and more fish per hour were 
caught during June than any other month. 

Sturge Lake replaced Muskrat Lake as the most popular 
fishing grounds and also replaced the Black Sturgeon River as the 
best fishing spot for pickerel in terms of effort expended (0.5 per 
hour). More pickerel per hour were taken in June and July than any 
other period. 

Shillabeer Lake far exceeded all other waters as the best 
spot for pike (1.3 per hour). However this is the first year that 
this lake has been included in the census and no comparison is 
possible with previous years. July was the poorest month for pike 
per hour with all other months being equal. 



TABLE IV - Comparison Chart - Black Sturgeon Area. 

1956 



General 

Angling parties 
Total Fishermen 
Waters selected 
Total hours fished 
Pickerel caught 
Pike caught 
Bass caught 

Table 1 

Fishing hours per angler 
Average no. fish per angler 
Average no. Pickerel per angler 
Average no. Pike per angler 

Table 2 

Average no. fish per hour 
Average no. Pickerel per hour 
Average no. Pike per hour 

Table 3 

Fishing pressure May 
Fishing pressure June 
Fishing pressure July 
Fishing pressure August 
Fishing pressure September 



13% 
k5% 

7% 



1957 



558 


1877 


1148 


3964 


7 


10 


7271 


23923 


2288 


6487 


3128 


12704 


39 


64 


6.3 


6.0 


4.7 


4.8 


2.0 


1.6 


2.7 


3.2 


0.7 


0.7 


0.3 


0.2 


0.4 


0.5 



5.4$ 
33.0fo 
32.2$ 

14.1% 
15.2$ 



Acknowledgments ; 

The gatemen employed by the Great Lakes Paper Company are 
again largely responsible for the success of this year's Creel 
Census. Without their efforts in distributing and collecting the 
census cards, this project would not have been possible. 



- 71 - 

Conclusions ; 

1. Pickerel and pike are the main species attracting anglers to 
the Black Sturgeon area, 

2. Pickerel fishing may be considered only fair in this area. 

3. Pike fishing may be considered fair to good in this area with 
the exception of Shillabeer Lake which is excellent. 

4. All other species form only an insignificant part of the creel 
except in a few individual catches, 

5. Although fishing pressure on this area has incresed by over 3 
times that of 1956, it may be classed as only medium, 

6. The new type creel card used this year is much superior to creel 
census form F. C, 17 for this particular area. It is more 
readily understood by the sportsmen and easier to complete and 
compute. 

7. There are no doubts as to the value of this study to management 
and sportsmen and should be continued in the future to obtain a 
better analysis of this area as a recreation area, 

S. Greater numbers of sportsmen are obtaining access each year 
through the Great Lakes gate but continuing north to fish 
outside the Great Lakes limits, especially Lake Nipigon. This 
new area would also warrant a study. 

Literature Cited : 

Ryder, R. A, 

A Creel Census of the Black Sturgeon Area, 1956. 

Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 39, pp. 41-49, February, 

1958. 



- 72 - 

WINTER FISHING PRESSURE ON LAKE TROUT, 

PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, 1957 

by 
R. A. Ryder 



From January to April, 1957, a winter fishery survey was 
conducted on nineteen lakes in the Port Arthur District subjected 
to the heaviest angling pressure for lake trout. The primary purpose 
of this survey was not to obtain catch per unit effort data from 
ice fishermen but rather to make a preliminary estimate on the 
numbers of lake trout harvested through winter angling. Many local 
sportsmen do not believe that lake trout, a species possibly subject 
to over-exploitation by angling, should retain a year round open 
season. It is their contention that the lake trout is harvested 
much more easily during the winter months and that legal bag limits 
are the rule rather than the exception. To evaluate the numbers of 
lake trout harvested during the winter, counts were made of the 
number of anglers on each lake and the total number of lake trout 
in possession. This count was taken chiefly by the Conservation 
Officers on their regular winter patrols. In order to obtain the 
maximum count of lake trout harvested, the checks were generally 
taken in the late afternoon, as far as possible. Most of the checks 
were made on weekends and holidays when the greatest number of ang- 
lers were out fishing. A definite routine check was impossible to 
establish because of weather conditions and interference with other 
duties. However, the heaviest fished lakes were checked as often as 
possible each weekend from January to April. 

Results of Census 

During the four month period, a total of 525 lake trout 
anglers were checked on nineteen different lakes. They possessed a 
total of 225 lake trout or 0.43 trout per angler (Table l). In none 
of the lakes did the lake trout harvest exceed more than one fish 
per angler-day, the average being considerably less than that rate. 
It becomes obvious that should the figures obtained from the sample 
days be applied to the whole winter's angling, the subsequent catch 
is still exceedingly small. It must be remembered that most ice- 
fishing takes place during the week-ends in this area, the same days 
on which the majority of the checks were made. Hence close to 
maximum figures for fishing pressure and harvest were obtained. 

Discussion 

From our observations of open water lake trout fishing in 
this District, it seems probable that the subsequent harvest is at 
least ten times greater than that of the winter anglers. In any 
event it seems unlikely that our lake trout are being over-exploited 
at this time. The decline in the quality of angling in some of our 
lake trout lakes can usually be associated with the introduction of 
an undesirable species or the destruction of habitat. 



. . . . . ... - 



- 73 - 



TABLE I 



Lake 

Arrow 

Castle 

Cliff 

Fallingsnow 

Greenwater 

Huronian 

Jessie 

Loch Erne 

Loftquist 

Mountain 

North Fowle 

Oliver 

Pete 

Rudge 

Shebandowan 

Silver 

Stewart 

Stetham* s 

Sunset 

TOTAL 



* Includes only the times anglers were present and fishing 
specifically for lake trout. 

Winter angling using live minnows for bait tends to capture 
a smaller lake trout than the average sized trout caught in the open 
water season on artificial lures which are the principal baits used. 
This makes better use of the lake trout population by harvesting the 
younger and more numerous year classes thereby reducing natural mor- 
tality and intraspecific competition. 

Angling pressure is also reduced on the larger and more 
desirable lake trout. 

The more nearly homothermous quality of the water in the 
winter will diminish the mortality rate on any trout that may be 
released. 









Number of 


Number of H 


Number of 


Number 


of 


Lake Trout 


Times 


Anglers 


Lake Trout 


Per Angler 


Checked 


14 


6 




0.43 


2 


14 


6 




0.43 


2 


19 


6 




0.32 


4 


43 


46 




0.96 


3 


23 


14 




0.50 


3 


53 


9 




0.16 


6 


2 







0.00 


1 


141 


41 




0.29 


5 


27 


6 




0.22 


7 


6 


2 




0.33 


3 


3 







0.00 


1 


33 


19 




0.5^ 


2 


10 


7 




0.70 


3 


11 


2 




0.13 


1 


3 







0.00 


1 


39 


4 




0.10 


3 


45 


41 




0.91 


7 


19 


16 




0.34 


4 


5 







0.00 


1 


525 


225 




0.43 


59 



Conclusions 

Winter angling does not overexploit the lake trout popula- 
tions in the Port Arthur District at the present time under existing 
fishing pressures. The winter harvest of lake trout constitutes only 
a small portion of the annual catch. Decrease in the quality of 
fishing in local trout lakes is usually associated with the introduc- 
tion of an undesirable fish species, or some other alteration of the 
habitat, and not by winter angling. 



- 74 - 

COARSE FISH REMOVAL, HEART IaKE, 1957 

Murray G. Johnson 
Biologist, Dept. of Planning & Development 



Description 

Heart Lake Conservation Area is situated in Chinguacousy 
Township, approximately five miles from the town of Brampton. It is 
now one of several Conservation Areas under the supervision of the 
Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. It has many 
natural advantages for recreation, including swimming, boating and 
the study of natural history. 

The area comprises about 150 acres, including some woodland, 
an area of open land, and the lake with its 40 acres of water surface. 
This is one of a number of small lakes to be found on the height of 
land running across Peel and York Counties. The maximum d epth of 
Heart Lake is 34 feet; the average depth approximately 10 feet. No 
marked inlet or outlet is present. 

Apparently some years ago, this lake provided bass fishing 
of good quality. Reports of fair-sized largemouth black bass being 
caught were noted. Recently brown bullheads and pumpkinseed sunfish 
have comprised the bulk of the catch. In order to restore angling 
for game species, treatment to remove the coarse fish population was 
recommended. 

This project was carried out on November 3rd by the 
Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, with the help 
of the Islington and West Toronto Sportsmen's Clubs. 

Treatment 



In order to apply at least 1 p. p.m. of Pronoxfish to the 
#0 million gallons in Heart Lake, two 55 gal. (U.S. measure) drums - 
a total of 3$ Imperial gallons - was added to the water, giving a 
concentration of 1.1 p. p.m. 

Pronoxfish is available from the S. E. Penick Company, 50 
Church Street, New York, and costs $224.40 per 55 gal. drum. Non- 
governmental agencies can also obtain the product duty-free as a 
pesticide by filling out a P.S. 5# form (Canada Dept. of Agriculture) 

The bulk of the poison was applied using a Jackmite pump 
with a double intake, one intake removing pure poison from a ten 
gallon drum also in the boat, the second taking lake water from 
beneath the boat. By means of separate valves, the ratio of poison 
to water was regulated close to 1:20. The ten gallon drum of Pronox- 
fish was emptied in approximately eight minutes, and the poison was 
allocated to different sections of the lake on a pre-arranged work 
plan using a relatively uniform and moderate speed. An eight foot 
spray boom held in position over the wake of the craft about two feet 



- 75 - 

behind the 7i h.p. motor delivered the poison. This assured good 
mixing of the poison into the lake water. 

The apparatus described, including drum, valves, fittings, 
rubber hose, spray boom and clamps, as well as labour in design and 
construction, cost y%.00. (Automatic Pumping Equipment, Woodbridge, 
Ontario) . 

While power treatment was being carried out, two boat crews 
applied ten gallons of poison to the shallows about the perimeter of 
the lake using pack pumps. In addition, ten gallons of Pronoxfish 
was pumped into the lake about 15 feet below the surface by detaching 
and submerging the spray boom. The operation was completed in less 
than four hours. 

Harvest 

Many small fish began to appear on the surface two to three 
hours after poisoning was completed. Creek chub and sunfish appeared 
first. The following day, bullheads appeared in large number; 



o . 



The creek chub (Se motilus atromaculatus ) was the commonest 
fish in numbers. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus ) and 
pumpkinseed (L epomis gibbo sus) were somewhat less common, and approx- 
imately of equal proportions. Golden shiners ( Notemigonas cr ysoleucas ) 
were collected in fewer numbers than any of the aforementioned fish. 
Suckers (C atostomu s commersonnii ) , mud minnows ( Umbr a limi.) , and brook 
sticklebacks were present in very low numbers. No largemouth bass of 
any size was observed. 

The fish were collected and weighed in bushel baskets. A 
total of 7100 pounds of all seven species was collected, representing 
a minimum figure of 17& pounds per acre, as the standing crop of Heart 
Lake. Many fish were not recovered. The bottom of the lake in 
several a reas was partly covered with dead fish, and large numbers of 
foraging herring gulls recovered another unknown quantity of fish. 

Recommendations 

Because Heart Lake has produced good largemouth bass angling 
in the past, and because areas of pond lily (M uphar ) are present and 
appear to be suitable bass habitat, it has been recommended that this 
species be stocked in 195$. 

It would be advisable to prohibit the use of minnows as bait 
in the lake. It may prove desirable, however, to introduce one species 
of minnow as a forage fish. 

Fishing should be prohibited until the introduced bass have 
spawned once. 







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